Dr. Philipp Schmid

PSch 1

Vetretungsdozent für Statistik und Forschungsmethoden

Büro: MG 1 / 319

Tel.: +49 361 737-1635
E-Mail: philipp.schmid@uni-erfurt.de

Sprechstunde: nach Vereinbarung per E-Mail

Funktionen & Mitgliedschaften


  • Psychology and health decision making
  • Science denialism
  • Risk perception and communication

My work aims at analyzing the impact of messages of science denialism on individual's health decision-making as well as designing interventions to reduce its influence. Science denialism is an approach that has the ultimate goal of rejecting a proposition on which a scientific consensus exists. In the age of mass media science denialism has multiplied its reach and availability, which threatens the acceptance and lifesaving use of health-treatments and prevention behavior - e.g. HIV-treatments or vaccines. Deniers use different techniques, such as conspiracy theories or false logic, to promote their messages of science denial. In order to understand the influence of these messages on individuals' health decision-making I apply an empirical judgment and decision-making perspective. Furthermore, I use literature from the areas of psychology of persuasion and debunking to design and test promising interventions. I aim at generating basic research results, which are applicable for recommendations and guidelines for health authorities. My research in this area mainly focuses on vaccine decision-making and will contribute to the question of how to respond to vaccine deniers.

Dissertation project

The influence of science denialism on health decision making. How should health authorities respond?

Open Science

I am committed to Open Science and a member of the Erfurt Open Science Initiative. I embrace the values of openness and transparency in science by applying Open Science practices in my research, teaching, support of young researchers and interactions with my institution.


08/2015 Master (M.Sc.) - Thesis: The influence of social norms on vaccine intentions.
08/2013 Bachelor (B.A.) - Thesis: On culturally sensitive health communication and the influence of collectivism on vaccine intentions.
2008 Abitur (German university entrance diploma), Graf-Anton-Günther Gymnasium Oldenburg
10/2016 - current University of Erfurt: research fellow until 2019
12/2015 - current World Health Organization Europe consultant
11/2015 - 2016 University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf: research fellow
02/2011- 2015 University of Erfurt: research assistant


Peer-reviewed Articles

Schmid, P., Schwarzer, M., & Betsch, C. (2020). Weight-of-Evidence Strategies to Mitigate the Influence of Messages of Science Denialism in Public Discussions. Journal of Cognition, 3(1), 36. https://doi.org/10.5334/joc.125

Betsch, C., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Schmid, P., & Böhm, R. (2020). Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(36), 21851–21853. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2011674117

Habersaat, K., Betsch, C., Danchin, M., Sunstein, C., Böhm, R., Falk, A., Brewer, N. T., Omer, S. B., Scherzer, M., Sah, S., Fischer, E. F., Scheel, A.E., Fancourt, D., Kitayama, S., Dubé, E., Leask, J., Dutta, M., MacDonald, N. E., Temkina, A., Lieberoth, A., Jackson, M. Lewandowsky, S., Seale, H., Fiethe, N., Schmid, P., Gelfand, M., Korn, L., Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L. Sprengholz, P., Salvi, C., Butler, R. (2020). Ten considerations for effectively managing the COVID-19 transition. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(7), 677–687. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0906-x 

Neufeind, J., Betsch, C., Habersaat, K. B., Eckardt, M., Schmid, P., & Wichmann, O. (2020). Barriers and drivers to adult vaccination among family physicians–Insights for tailoring the immunization program in Germany. Vaccine, 38 (27), 4252–4262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.052

Haase, N., Schmid, P., & Betsch, C. (2020). Impact of disease risk on the narrative bias in vaccination risk perceptions. Psychology & Health, 35(3), 346–365. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2019.1630561

Schmid, P., & Betsch, C. (2019). Effective strategies for rebutting science denialism in public discussions. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(9), 931-939. https://10.1038/s41562-019-0632-4

Betsch, C., Böhm, R., Schmid, P., Korn, L., Steinmeyer, L., Heinemeier, D., Eitze, S. & Küpke, N.K. (2019). Impfverhalten psychologisch erklären, messen und verändern. Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz, 62(4), 400-409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-019-02900-6

Betsch, C., Schmid, P., Heinemeier, D., Korn, L., Holtmann, C., & Böhm, R. (2018). Beyond confidence: Development of a measure assessing the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination. PloS one, 13(12), e0208601. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208601 

Betsch, C., Rossmann, C., Pletz, M.W., Vollmar, H.C., Freytag, A., Wichmann, O., Hanke, R., Hanke, W., Heinemeier, D., Schmid, P., Eitze, S., Weber, W., Reinhardt, A., Küpke, N.K., Forstner, C., Fleischmann-Struzek, C., Mikolajetz, A., Römhild, J., Neufeind, J., Rieck, T., Suchecka, K., Reinhart, K. (2018). Increasing influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake in the elderly: Study protocol for the multi-methods prospective intervention study Vaccination60+. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 885. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5787-9

Betsch, C., Bödeker, B., Schmid, P., & Wichmann, O. (2018). How baby’s first shot determines the development of maternal attitudes towards vaccination. Vaccine, 36(21), 3018-3026. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.04.023

Schmid, P., MacDonald, N. E., Habersaat, K., & Butler, R. (2018). Commentary to: How to respond to vocal vaccine deniers in public. Vaccine, 36 (2), 196-198. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.09.065

Schmid, P., Rauber, D., Betsch, C., Lidolt, G., & Denker, M. L. (2017). Barriers of influenza vaccination intention and behavior–a systematic review of influenza vaccine hesitancy, 2005–2016. PloS one, 12(1), e0170550. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170550

Betsch, C.*, Haase, N.*, Renkewitz, F., & Schmid, P. (2015). The narrative bias revisited: What drives the biasing influence of narrative information on risk perceptions? Judgment and Decision Making, 10(3), 241–264. https://sjdm.org/journal/14/141206a/jdm141206a.pdf (*shared first authorship)

Betsch, C. & Schmid, P. (2012). Angst essen Impfbereitschaft auf? Der Einfluss kognitiver und affektiver Faktoren auf die Risikowahrnehmung im Ausbruchsgeschehen. [The influence of cognitive and affective aspects of risk perception during outbreaks.] Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz, 56, 124-130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-012-1595-z


Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Ecker, U. K. H., Albarracín, D., Amazeen, M. A., Kendeou, P., Lombardi, D., Newman, E. J., Pennycook, G., Porter, E. Rand, D. G., Rapp, D. N., Reifler, J., Roozenbeek, J., Schmid, P.,  Seifert, C. M., Sinatra, G. M., Swire-Thompson, B., van der Linden, S., Vraga, E. K., Wood, T. J., Zaragoza, M. S. (2020). The Debunking Handbook 2020. https://doi.org/10.17910/b7.1182

Betsch, C., Rossmann, C., Bach-Habersaat, K., Schmid, P., Holtmann, C., Korn, L., Wiehn, J., Mummer, L. (2017). Vaccination and trust – How concerns arise and the role of communication in mitigating crises. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/329647/Vaccines-and-trust.PDF

Schmid, P., MacDonald, N., Bach-Habersaat, K., Butler, R. (2016). Holtmann, C., Korn, L., Wiehn, J., Mummer, L. (2016). Best practice guidance: How to respond to vocal vaccine deniers in public. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/315761/Vocal-vaccine-deniers-guidance-document.pdf

Book Chapter

Betsch, C., Schmid, P., Holtmann, C., Heinemeier, D. & Korn, L. (2018). Erklärung und Veränderung von Präventionsverhalten. In:  Kohlmann, C.-W., Salewski, C., Wirtz, M. A. (Hrsg.). Psychologie in der Gesundheitsförderung (pp. 341–354). Bern: Hogrefe.