Herzog-Ernst-Stipendiat*innen und Hiob-Ludolf-Fellows 2020

Herzog-Ernst-Stipendiat*innen

Kathleen Burke (Toronto)

Hearth of Empire: Global Foods and Bodies in the Early Modern Dutch Empire in the Indian Ocean

Dr. Thomas Dorfner (Aachen)

Mammon für die Mission. Handelstätigkeit und Spendenakquise der Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine in der Atlantischen Welt (1760-1815)

Dr. Vera Faßhauer (Frankfurt a. M.)

Johann Christian Senckenbergs "Observationes in me ipso factae" und ihre literarhistorischen Kontexte. Eine Spurensuche

Dr. Christian Flow (Princeton)

Philological Observation

Samuel Kidane Haile (Mekelle)

Bambilo Milash, Alawha Milash and Marab Milash in the Setting of Ethiopian History: A Geohistory of Northern Ethiopia in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Dr. Fabian Jonietz (Florenz)

‘Meliora latent’. Kunstbegehr und klandestine Bildpraktiken am Übergang zwischen Früher Neuzeit und Moderne

Dr. Hyun-Ah Kim (Kampen)

Music, Rhetoric and Christian Hebraism in Early Modern Europe: Reuchlin's Reconstruction of the Modulata Recitatio

This project aims to demonstrate the relationship between music, rhetoric and Christian Hebraism within the intellectual, liturgical and religio-cultural context of early modern Europe, through examination of Reuchlin’s scholarship on the Hebrew cantillation and its relevance to humanist musical thought and practice. While there have been numerous studies about Reuchlin, few have delved into his scholarship on the Hebrew language itself. More fundamentally, existing studies of both Renaissance Christian Hebraism and Reuchlin have paid little attention to how the humanists studied Hebrew as the ‘divine language’ in which the Bible was not only written but also recited traditionally in tones. Also, modern scholarship on Renaissance rhetoric mainly concerns the ancient Greco-Roman legacy in the humanist writings, and no study has systematically evaluated the extent to which the Hebraist studies interacted with contemporary rhetoric and rhetorical music, and seldom do they consider the humanist scholarship on oriental languages and literature, which shows a unique cultural hybridity for its own sake in early modern Europe. Consequently, the relationship of rhetoric and Christian Hebraism remains unexplored, despite the central importance of biblical studies in the original languages in the early modern education. Focusing on Reuchlin’s scholarship on the cantillation and its influence on later Hebraist studies, this project seeks to reassess the importance of Reuchlin in relation to the humanist rhetoric and musical humanism that underlie the musical thought and practices of the Reformation. I demonstrate that Reuchlin’s Hebrew scholarship paved the way for the new oratorical framework of reciting and singing the biblical texts during the Reformation and thereafter. I argue that Reuchlin’s pedagogy of the Hebrew cantillation embodies the union of ‘rhetorical music’ (rhetorica musica) and ‘rhetorical theology’ (theologica rhetorica) – the two rhetorical notions which underlie the humanist revival of the ancient ‘modulated recitation’ (modulata recitatio). Furthermore, this project studies the impact of Reuchlin’s rhetorical approach to the cantillation on the new musico-liturgical practices of the Catholic Reformation, in terms of the humanist rhetoric which centred on the delivery (pronuntiatio). It thus demonstrates that the humanist Hebraic scholarship influenced the new musical theory and practice of the day, and examine the manner in which the cantillation was studied and utilised by Christian Hebraists, whose scholarship served for the new rhetorical framework of liturgical chant practice during the Reformation. Finally, this study will reflect on the religio-cultural and ethical implications of Reuchlin’s pedagogy of the cantillation and its legacy.  

Hyun-Ah Kim (b. 1972) is a musicologist and a Reformation scholar. Her areas of expertise include the history and theology of Christian music, the ethics and spirituality of music, music as rhetoric, and music and religious education, with a special focus on the Reformation and Renaissance humanism. After studying music, theology and history in South Korea and the U.K. she completed a PhD in Historical Musicology at Durham University (2005). She then conducted post-doctoral research under the auspices of various academic institutions: she was Post-doctoral Fellow, Eisenbichler Fellow and Research Fellow at the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, University of Toronto (2007 – 2018); Meeter Family Research Fellow at the H. Henry Meeter Center for Calvin Studies (2019); Hardenberg Fellow at the Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek, Emden (2017); and Mayers Fellow at the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, California (2016). She was previously Regular Professor and Adjunct Professor at Trinity College in the University of Toronto and the Toronto School of Theology (2008 – 2015), where she taught a number of innovative courses on the intersections of music, theology, ethics, rhetoric, religion and spirituality. Currently, she is a Post-doctoral Research Fellow of the Theologische Universiteit Kampen and an International Research Fellow of the Europäische Melanchthon-Akademie Bretten, where she leads an international project, Reformation Musical History and Theology (RMHT). She is the author of three books, The Praise of Musicke 1586 (2017), The Renaissance Ethics of Music (2015) and Humanism and the Reform of Sacred Music in Early Modern England (2008), as well as numerous articles on the intersections of music, theology and ethics in the eras of Renaissance humanism and the Reformation and beyond. In addition, she is founder and coordinator of the International Network for Music, Ethics and Spirituality (INMES) which aims to promote research, teaching and creative work on the nexus of music, ethics and spirituality from perspectives that are cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and cross-confessional.

Dr. Khosro Kiyanrad (Heidelberg)

Manuskripte als visuelle Artefakte: Illustrationen des Persischen Golfs in Manuskripten von Istaḫrīs al-Masālik wa l-mamālik in der Forschungsbibliothek Gotha

Ein in der Forschungsbibliothek Gotha befindliches Manuskript der persischen Übersetzung von Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm Istaḫrīs  Kitāb al-masālik wa l-mamālik (10. Jh.) sowie eines des arabischen Originals stellen die Basis meines Forschungsprojekts dar. Istaḫrī illustrierte sein Werk mit 21 Karten – einer Weltkarte sowie 20 Karten der zwanzig unterschiedlichen Weltregionen. Wenngleich diese Karten in der Forschung bereits gewürdigt wurden, sind bislang drei wesentliche Aspekte vernachlässigt worden, denen ich in Gotha am Beispiel der visuellen Darstellung des Persischen Golfs und der an ihm liegenden Städte nachgehen möchte:
1.    Das Verhältnis von Karten und Text
2.    Der Wandel von Visualisierungen im Kontext sich wandelnder kultureller, sprachlicher und politischer Rahmenbedingungen
3.    Die Materialität jedes einzelnen Manuskripts, insbesondere das für Visualisierungen eingesetzte Material
Dabei gehe ich davon aus, dass Manuskripte weit mehr sind als die in ihnen bewahrten Texte und daher in ihrer spezifischen Materialität, ihrem spezifischen Format, ihren spezifischen Illuminationen und Illustrationen gewürdigt werden sollten. Das Ziel, das mit den obengenannten Punkten verbunden ist, besteht darin, besser zu verstehen, welche zusätzlichen Informationen sich aus dem Zusammenspiel von Text und visuellen Repräsentationen ergeben, die keines der beiden Medien für sich alleine übermittelt. Außerdem soll geklärt werden, inwiefern die persische Übersetzung – und damit die Verfügbarmachung von Karten und Text für ein anderes Publikum – sich auf die ikonographische Präsentation, aber auch die Materialität der Manuskripte insgesamt auswirkt.
Die Forschung in Gotha soll einer in Entstehung befindlichen Monographie zu Visualisierungen des Persischen Golfs in Manuskripten aus der Frühzeit des Islam beitragen.

Khosro Kiyanrad studierte an den Universitäten Schiras und Teheran altiranische Geschichte. Er hat zum Handel und den wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen der Parther- und Sasanidenzeit gearbeitet. In seiner Promotionsschrift diskutierte er u. a. den Handel der Parther über den Persischen Golf. Außerdem interessiert er sich für persische Handschriften, Kartographie und die visuelle Repräsentation von Meeren. Zu seinen jüngeren Publikationen gehören: (Hg.) Safar-nāme-ye Mullā Fīrūz (Der Reisebericht des Mullā Fīrūz), Teheran, 2020; Ḫalīğ-e Fārs dar dourān-e bāstān (Der Persische Golf in der Antike), Teheran, 2019; (Hg.) Rah-āvard-e Hend (Souvenir aus Indien), Teheran, 2018; Bāzargānī dar rūzegār-e Aškāniyān (Handel in der Partherzeit), Teheran, 2017.

Dr. Witalij Morosow (Moskau)

Das Corpus des Pseudo-Lullus in Gotha. Ein Beitrag zur Beschreibung und Erschließung der lullistisch-alchemischen Handschrift

Radu Mustaţă (Budapest/Vienna)

Syriac Paideia and Jesuit Erudition in Malabar in the Times of the Synod of Diamper (1599)

In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the Syriac literary heritage of the Malabar Christians shifted itself from a standard Eastern Syriac canon of texts to a Catholic post-Tridentine literary output in Syriac, a fusion of Western and Middle Eastern sources and elements. My project analyzes the literary networks of the the Malabar Christians, as mirrored in the production of Syriac texts undertaken by the Catholic missionaries and their Indian Syriacist pupils. My focus is the relationship between (1) collections of sermons and (2) liturgical poetry, since these are entangled literary genres: occasionally Syriac sermons (translated from Latin or composed on the spot by Catholic missionaries) were replicated in liturgical poetry, showing the chains of transmission of Syriac knowledge from Jesuit teachers to their Indian students. An essential step in the contextualization of the collections of sermons consists of comparing Syriac manuscript texts from Malabar with European Early Modern printed collections of sermons. The Ducal and Gymnasial collections at the Gotha Research Library contain a wide range of printed collections of sermons from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. As a Herzog-Ernst fellow, I will conduct research on the relationship between the Syriac collections of sermons from Malabar and their European models.

Dr. Nina Niedermeier (Augsburg)

Die Mobilisierung des barocken Wunders in globaler und transnationaler Perspektive

Die frühe Geschichte des Wunders beginnt mit seiner Ortsverbundenheit. Wie der Religionshistoriker Ernest Renan resümierte, geschehen Wunder nur in Zeiten und an Orten, an denen an sie geglaubt wird. Mehr als von den thaumaturgischen Kräften war ihre öffentliche Sichtbarkeit und ihr Gedenken als außergewöhnliche Ereignisse von ihrer sozialen Konstruktion innerhalb einer lokalen Verehrergemeinschaft abhängig. Durch die Etablierung eines Kultes erhielten spezifische Orte zeitliche Kontinuität und narrative Qualität, um das Wundergeschehen erinnern und in seiner Potenz erneuern zu können. Insbesondere im konfessionellen Zeitalter trugen Wunderorte zu einem geographischen Netzwerk bei, das die Präsenz der göttlichen Gnade in den katholischen Gebieten belegte.
Die seit dem Mittelalter fortschreitende Mobilität des Wunders – seine Entwicklung vom Schrein- zum Fernwunder und seine geographische Expansion durch die Verbreitung von Reliquien und Wunderbildern – wurde im Verlauf der Frühen Neuzeit durch die druckgraphische Verbreitung von Mirakelberichten und -bildern, die globale Expansion der kirchlichen Mission und die Vielzahl territorialer Grenzkonflikte weiter befördert. Nicht mehr nur im Kultzentrum einer Glaubensgemeinschaft, sondern vor allem an den Rändern ihres Gebietsanspruches angesiedelt wurden himmlische Manifestationen zum Politikum. Das Überschreiten liminaler Räume sowie neu formulierte Gebietsansprüche werden in Gründungsmythen von mirakulösen Phänomenen begleitet, die so von der Überzeugungskraft des Wunders profitieren. In den Viten von Missionsheiligen wie Franz Xaver oder Francisco Solano bilden ihre Überquerung des Meeres und ihre Ankunft auf unbekanntem Terrain Schauplätze mirakulöser Ereignisse. Im vorgestellten Forschungsprojekt soll der Bedeutungsoffenheit des liminalen Wunderortes, der durch seinen ahistorischen Charakter dem ethnologischen 'Nicht-Ort' nahesteht, auf Wunderdarstellungen mit topographischen Bezügen nachgegangen werden. Insbesondere Grenzüberschreitungen hin zu exotischen Orten in Begleitung übernatürlicher Erscheinungen sollen vor dem Hintergrund der Wechselbeziehungen zwischen römisch-kurialen Zentralisierungsversuchen und alternativen Ortsansprüchen in postkolonialer Perspektive untersucht werden.
Neben der Asymmetrie von Kultzentrum und peripherem Raum steht das Spannungsfeld der Transnationalität. Die ästhetische und theologische Normierung von Wunderdarstellungen in Rom als Ort der Heiligsprechung und institutionalisierten Approbation kontrastiert mit der nationalen Herkunft nicht-römischer Heiliger wie zum Beispiel Ignatius von Loyola oder Teresa von Ávila, die in ihrem jeweiligen Heimatland bevorzugt auf assimilierende Weise in frühere Lokaltraditionen eingebettet wurden, anstatt sie den in der römischen Kanonisationspraxis etablierten Kriterien von Heiligkeit einzuordnen. Durch die Differenz von Geburtsort, Wirkort, Grabstätte, Kultort und Ort der institutionalisierten Anerkennung ergeben sich im Falle der seit dem 16. Jahrhundert zumeist spanischen Heiligen ineinander verflochtene transnationale Perspektiven, anhand derer sich die Migration und Variabilität von Wundererzählungen und bildlichen Darstellungen nachvollziehen lässt.

Nach dem Studium der Kunstgeschichte, Philosophie, Kunstpädagogik und Ethnologie an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in München forschte Dr. Nina Niedermeier u. a. am Deutschen Historischen Institut in Rom und am Deutschen Forum Kunstgeschichte in Paris zu den frühen Porträts (verae effigies) nachtridentinischer, vorwiegend italienischer Heiliger. 2018 schloss sie mit der Arbeit „Die ersten Porträts der Beati und Santi moderni. Porträtähnlichkeit in nachtridentinischer Zeit.“ das Doktorat an der Paris-Lodron-Universität in Salzburg mit Auszeichnung ab. Seither arbeitet sie an einem Postdoc-Projekt zur Mobilität des barocken Wunders in postkolonialer und transnationaler Perspektive. Bis 2019 war sie als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin im SFB 948 "Helden - Heroisierung - Heroismen" der Albrecht-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg tätig.

Rebecca Partikel (Marburg)

Vor dem Buch, für das Buch und über das Buch hinaus. Die Bilder in den astronomischen Büchern von Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687)

Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens werden die Bilder in den astronomischen Veröffentlichungen des Danziger Astronomen Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) übergreifend auf ihre Bildfindung, Bildnutzung und Rezeption untersucht. Zentral sind hier Fragen danach, wie Hevelius Bilder innerhalb seiner Veröffentlichungen einsetzte und auch außerhalb nutzte. Außerdem wird untersucht, wie diese Bilder später in anderen Veröffentlichungen aufgegriffen wurden und vor welchen Hintergründen dies geschah.
Interessant ist hierbei, neben den Beziehungen der Bilder untereinander sowie ihren Textbezügen, unter anderem auch die Bildproduktion in Bezug auf die Formfindung sowie den Herstellungsprozess selbst und die Einordnung der Bilder in das Werk der jeweiligen Künstler. So ist eine Untersuchung der Künstler, die in Hevelius' verschiedenen Publikationen tätig waren, sowie jene der Kontakte oder Bezüge zu weiteren Gelehrten für ein umfassendes Verständnis der Bilder sowie deren Rezeption außerhalb der Bücher wichtig.
Für den Aspekt der bei Hevelius aktiven Künstler sind in Gotha Bestände erhalten, an denen sich deren Arbeit im Bereich botanischer Buchillustration bei Jacob Breyne (1637-1697), einem Danziger Botaniker, nachvollziehen lässt. Die hier vorhandenen Materialien zur Buchproduktion von Breynes botanischer Veröffentlichung von 1678 ermöglichen, den Entstehungsprozess einiger der Abbildungen dieser Publikation nachzuvollziehen sowie deren Entstehungsumstände näher zu betrachten. Weiterhin ist ein Großteil der astronomischen Werke Hevelius' in Gotha verfügbar und es finden sich Briefe, die Hevelius nach Gotha schickte.

Rebecca Partikel studierte an der Philipps-Universität Marburg Kunst, Musik und Medien: Organisation und Vermittlung sowie Kunstgeschichte. Bereits im Studium entwickelte sich ihr Forschungs- und Interessenschwerpunkt der frühneuzeitlichen Druckgraphik in Büchern. Ihre Masterthesis „Die Titelkupferstiche der astronomischen Veröffentlichungen des Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687)“ erweitert sie derzeit in ihrem Promotionsprojekt an der Philipps-Universität Marburg.

Dr. Zornitsa Radeva (Freiburg)

Provokationsabwehr am Fuße des Parnass? Johann Christoph Colers (1691-1736) Gelehrtenexistenz zwischen Gotha, Wittenberg und Weimar

Dr. John Romey (Fort Wayne)

Constructing French Music, Myth and Identity: The Transnational Circulation of Jean-Baptiste Lully’s Music

My project extends my previous research on the circulation and reuse of Jean-Baptiste Lully’s music within France to the transnational performance of Lully’s operas, the reconfiguration and arrangement of his music as instrumental suites or intabulations, and the bourgeois culture of deconstructing French spectacles into fragments for social musicking and identity construction. This project will examine the transnational circulation of Lully’s ballets, operas, and detached or arranged tunes from larger spectacles during the murky period from Lully’s death in 1687 until he emerged as a symbol used to evoke French musical taste and “Frenchness” in the eighteenth century. In the year of a new premiere of one of Lully’s tragédies en musique, Parisian spectators were known to attend the same opera as many as forty times in a single season. Once Lully’s music left France, the social experience of spectators and consumers of his music changed in profound ways. A Huguenot refugee in Amsterdam or a courtier in Wolfenbüttel or Gotha might have an opportunity to experience or even perform in a tragédie en musique, but repeat performances of Lully’s music would have to be realized themselves in some kind of arrangement detached from the spectacle.

John Romey is Visiting Assistant Professor in Musicology at Purdue University Fort Wayne. He has recently published an article in Early Modern French Studies about songs on placards produced during the Fronde and has a forthcoming article in the Fall 2020 issue of the Journal of Musicology.

Dr. Tricia Ross (Omaha)

Sacred Script: Medicine and the Bible in Early Modern Europe

The Protestant educator and encyclopedist Johann Heinrich Alsted defined medicina sacra as “the ability to heal well, gathered from sacred letters.” Far from being a side note incorporating yet another field of learning into Alsted’s project to harmonize all knowledge with the Christian Bible, his definition indicates the existence of a widespread project framed by early modern writers across confessions (Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed), across disciplines (medical and theological), to evaluate the Bible for what it teaches about medicine. My research project traces the origins and evolution of early modern medicina sacra between 1550 and 1750, evaluating how physicians and theologians combined medical, religious, and historical knowledge with hermeneutics to gauge the usefulness and reliability of the biblical text for questions of medical theory, practice, and history.

Tricia Ross (PhD, Duke University) is a Resident Assistant Professor/Postdoctoral fellow in the Honors Program at Creighton University (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). An early modern European intellectual historian, her research centers on the intersection of science, medicine, theology, and religion.

Dr. Tarek Sabraa (Bonn)

Ibn Qadi Shahba (1377-1448) and his oevre: Editing the previously unknown parts of the Tarikh Ibn Qadi Shahba

Philippe Schmid (St. Andrews)

Collections, Catalogues and Coins: Julius Carl Schläger (1706-1786) comes to Gotha

My research in Gotha focuses on Julius Carl Schläger (1706-1786), who was a fascinating and largely forgotton figure of early eighteenth-century scholarship. Born in Hanover in 1706, he was educated at the University of Helmstedt. After having served as a private tutor in the house of the counsel Johann Anderson (1674–1743) in Hamburg, who possessed a significant library and collection of coins, Schläger took up a position at Helmstedt in 1730. He was made a professor of greek and oriental languages in 1737, teaching courses on philology and antiquities. In 1744, he was made director of the Friedenstein collection of coins in Gotha by Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1699–1772). After the death of Ernst Salomon Cyprian (1673–1745) in 1746, he was also appointed as head librarian of the ducal library in Gotha. Schläger’s life and work merit closer scrutiny. He exemplifies the relationship between text-based philology, material culture and collecting practices in antiquarian research, having amassed a library on numismatics, which he used to catalogue ancient coins. Focusing on the period from 1744 to 1756, I will study Schläger as a collector, trying to gain a better understanding of the book culture of antiquarianism at the beginning of the eighteenth-century.

I was educated at Basel and Munich, before moving to the University of St Andrews as a PhD candidate in Modern History in 2018. My thesis is supervised by Andrew Pettegree and Graeme Kemp and studies book collecting culture in early modern Germany. From 2017 to 2018 I was a fellow at the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel.

Hannes Wietschel (Essen)

Die photographische Werkstatt der Geographie

Dr. John Woitkowitz (Cambridge)

Science, Networks, and Knowledge Spaces: August Petermann and the Open Polar Sea

Throughout the nineteenth century, the creation of geographical knowledges about the Arctic regions underwent fundamental changes. A new generation of geographers and cartographers began to re-imagine the polar regions as scholastic travel, collecting practices, and the distribution of geographical knowledge became organized into academic disciplines such as orography, oceanography, hydrology or meteorology. At the same time, an expanding landscape of geographical societies, social clubs, missionary organisations, and scientific print publications provided the intellectual infrastructure for a (re)configuration of ideas about the circumpolar world. In this project, I analyze the transimperial formation of ideas about the Arctic regions among European and American scientific networks and knowledge communities throughout the long nineteenth century. Specifically, the Arctic geography of August Heinrich Petermann, a German ‘science manager’ based in Edinburgh, London, and Gotha, theorising the existence of an open polar sea and a mythical land beyond the Arctic sea ice, shaped polar exploration agendas and Arctic geography throughout Europe and North America. Petermann’s tenure in Gotha at the Perthes publishing house indeed constituted a moment of transition in the broader Verwissenschaftlichung of geographical knowledge production during the nineteenth century. Based on research in libraries, museums, and archives in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, this study, therefore, examines how Petermann’s theories travelled among transimperial networks and knowledge communities within the context of the disciplinary formation of geography in the modern university system, the cartographical representation of spatial knowledges, and the construction of the Arctic regions in the European and American imaginaries. In doing so, this project draws new connections between the sites of colonial encounter, the repositories of Arctic knowledges, and the places of knowledge production.

John Woitkowitz is a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the project ERC Arctic Cultures: Sites of Collection in the Formation of the European and American Northlands (PI: Richard C. Powell) at the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge. He earned his PhD in International History with a dissertation on the cultural history of U.S.-Canadian defense relations in the Arctic at the University of Calgary in Canada. John’s research draws on global and postcolonial history, cultural history, and histories of science and knowledge.

Hiob-Ludolf-Fellows

Prof. Dr. Gioia Filocamo (Terni)

Music for Anatomical Dissections in Universities of the Modern Era

The project explores the possible reasons for the presence of music in some European anatomical theatres during the modern age, starting from the end of the sixteenth century, in order to finalize some conclusions in an original essay.
The anatomical theatre of Padua was the first permanent structure – finished at the end of 1594 and still existing – where human anatomy was taught also through the dissection of corpses. This practice, although also practiced previously, was explicitly permitted by the brief of Pope Sixtus IV which authorized autopsies in the University of Tübingen in April 1482. The lectures held in Padua by the legendary anatomist Girolamo Fabrici d’Acquapendente (1533-1619), Gabriele Falloppio’s favorite pupil who succeeded him as a university lecturer, recalled several foreign students in the city, including many Protestant Germans gathered in the Natio Germanica Artistarum. In fact, it was only at the University of Padua that the Protestants could bypass the Catholic professio fidei imposed on students about to graduate by Pope Pius IV, with the bull In sacrosancta (1564), in compliance with the dictates of the Council of Trent: the extraordinary doctoral colleges of the city allowed hospitality to Catholic and Reformed students without the obligation of any oath. And in Padua we know of German students who requested and obtained musical performances to lift their spirits during anatomical dissections. My research project investigates the complex meaning of this need and the function of music in this specific context, then the meaning assigned by the Protestant culture to the spiritual reassurance induced by music, and the ways in which this would have happened or, at least, it would have been hoped. To my knowledge, the presence of music in other anatomical theatres is also witnessed in the universities of Leiden and Bologna, but it could have been requested in other cities of which I am not currently aware.
This research is absolutely interdisciplinary, since it touches different areas but all connected to each other. Mainly: the history of university teaching, the history of university student society, the history of mentality, the history of philosophy (Platonic and Aristotelian), the social and religious function of music. This last aspect is what I would like to explore as much as possible. We know that music was present in the anatomical theatres of the modern age, but the chronicles refer mainly to celebratory and festive situations (inaugural lectures, carnival parties, etc.), which also included an autopsy to demonstrate the excellence of the teachers of the university itself: universities competed with each other also through this sort of events. But the case of Padua also testifies a peculiar context: some German students requested music during anatomy lessons intended for them, lessons that foreigners considered one of the main reasons of appeal in the university especially starting from the presence of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), a famous professor of anatomy in Padua until 1542. Vesalius was the author of the revolutionary De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Basel, Johannes Oporinus, 1543), a treatise that completely changed the approach of academic knowledge on the human body. According to his innovative vision, the anatomical dissection was needed to investigate the human body as a curious detective would have done, not only to confirm the structural details as they were described in classic books based on the intellectual framework drawn from Galenic medicine and Aristotelian natural philosophy. For Vesalius, this investigative activity on the human body was a physician’s task, and this opinion subverted the status of the typical anatomical lesson conducted until then in the universities, where there was the interaction up to three different subjects: (1) the lector, who sat far and above the corpse, ex cathedra, and declaimed the description of the human body by reading it from a classical Galenic treatise; (2) the ostensor, who showed on the naked body through a stick what the professor had just read from his book; (3) the dissector, the one who physically operated the dissection on the corpse starting with a cut from the sternum to the pubis: he was a surgeon-barber, a professional figure traditionally devoted to bloodletting and the treatment of venereal diseases. Therefore, Vesalius accompanied anatomical science at the gates of the seventeenth-century scientific revolution which undermined the model of Aristotelian interpretation of the world. The new vision of anatomy is clearly visible from the image shown on the frontispiece of his De humani corporis fabrica: we see Vesalius himself, the professor, portrayed while working on the corpse surrounded by the crowd of students. Modern science was beginning its journey.
Coming back to the interesting case of the University of Padua, and to what I would like to understand better in relation to the changes in progress: why, then, did the demand for music during anatomical dissections come from German students? Is it possible that their education and background have been significant in formulating this request at the university? In particular: could there be a causal link between the Protestant mentality of German students and their need for music? Is it really certain that the presence of music in this peculiar context can only be linked to the ceremonial aspect of the anatomy? (this is the opinion of CYNTHIA KLESTINEC, Theaters of Anatomy: Students, Teachers, and Traditions of Dissection in Renaissance Venice, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011, pp. 106-107). What was the specific calming effect that one hoped to receive from the music itself during the disturbing ‘show’ of the anatomical lesson? And could this benefit have a religious value in some way linked to the awareness that the object of study lying on the anatomical table had an immortal soul? The chronicles document a very detached lexical attitude when anatomy teachers and medical students referred to the corpse to be dissected (called ‘the subject’), a corpse sometimes even stolen by the students themselves. But most of the time the corpses for anatomy belonged to healthy men died as a result of a death sentence: subjects, therefore, who linked the infamy of condemnation and ‘judicial killing’ to further infamy – considered dishonourable at most – of public anatomy. There were special city confraternities dealing specifically with the comfort of those condemned to death, the oldest of which originated at Bologna in 1336 and called “Santa Maria della Morte” (Saint Mary of Death). These institutions assured the prisoner full absolution from sins and the burial of his body in consecrated land in exchange for his full submission to his hard destiny, but sometimes the judicial authorities allowed medical students to take advantage of these corpses for their anatomical inquiries.
I started the study around the project a few weeks ago, and my impression is that this research can be set from different points of view. I would mainly like to explore the presence of music in anatomical theatres to penetrate its specific emotional function: the De vita coelitus comparanda (1489, the third book of De vita) by the neoplatonic thinker Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), for example, enhances the medical qualities of music for the human soul, a direct energetic emanation of the divine love present in the cosmos. Music would be able to take care of the human spirit in parallel with what medicine does with the body: the dynamism of music would bring the soul closer to the higher spheres, purifying it.
I am very interested to understand if the Protestantism of the German students enrolled at the University of Padua could be linked in some way to the philosophical conceptions circulating at that time. And to this goal, the rich section devoted to the cultural history of Protestantism in Early Modern Europe of the Gotha library would certainly provide a precious support difficult to find in other research centres. The library also stores several sixteenth- and seventeenth-century publications by Girolamo Fabrici d’Acquapendente, books on Andreas Vesalius (including the 1975 facsimile of his De humani corporis fabrica), and a very useful secondary bibliography on the conception of anatomy at the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that I have not yet been able to consult in Italy. It would therefore surely be very fruitful to be able to spend a period of study in this important German research centre.

Gioia Filocamo teaches Poetry for Music and Musical Dramaturgy at the Istituto superiore di Studi musicali di Terni (Italy), and Music and Society in the Medieval and Renaissance Age at the University of Parma. She received a Diploma in Piano (1988), a Degree in Drama, Art, and Music Studies (1994), a Ph.D. in the Philology of Music (2001), and a Ph.D. in Modern History (2015). She has held post-doctoral research fellowships in Bologna (University), Chicago (Newberry Library), Wolfenbüttel (Herzog August Bibliothek), and a scholarship at St John’s College, Cambridge. She has produced a complete critical edition of an anthology of late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century music, Florence, BNC, Panciatichi MS 27: Text and Context (Brepols 2010), co-edited Uno gentile et subtile ingenio, a Festschrift in honour of Bonnie Blackburn (Brepols 2009), and has published articles on various aspects of musical life in modern age Italy. Her interest focuses mainly on how music interacted with social life in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, but she has also worked on opera.

Prof. Dr. Arne Klawitter (Tokio)

Jakob Mauvillon als Religionskritiker, politischer Denker und philosophischer Freigeist

Prof. Dr. Heather Madar (Arcata)

Sabers, Sultans and Sultanas: Ottoman Imagery in 17th Century German Court Culture

My project examines the use of Ottoman imagery at German courts in the 17th century. The focus is particularly on Ottoman imagery in court festivals and the use and collection of Ottoman objects. I am interested in the visual language and sources of this imagery, the political motivations of its usage and how it reflects or inflects images of the Ottomans during the 17th century particularly in light of the ongoing military campaigns against the Ottomans during this period and interactions with the Ottomans leading up to and subsequent to the 1683 Siege of Vienna.
My research to date has focused primarily on the court of the Electors of Saxony as well as on the court of the Margraves of Brandenburg in Halle, the ducal court of Württemberg and Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden-Baden. While in Gotha I will research the potential interest of the Gotha court in Ottoman imagery and themes as well as the collection of Türkenbeute in the library collection. I will also be exploring primary source documents from the 17th century that discuss the Ottomans and the various wars against the Ottomans in which Western European, particularly German-speaking powers participated.

Heather Madar is a professor of art history at Humboldt State University in Arcata, California. She earned her Ph.D. in History of Art from the University of California, Berkeley. Her work focuses on early modern printmaking and European interactions with the Ottoman empire. She is currently editing a collection of essays titled Prints as Agents of Global Exchange, 1500-1700, which is forthcoming from Amsterdam University Press. Her contribution to that collection, titled "The Sultan's Face Looks East and West" examines artistic exchange as reflected in portraits of Ottoman sultans.

Prof. Dr. Sabine Mecking (Marburg)

Zwischen den Welten. Deutsche Gesangskultur in Deutsch-Südwestafrika und den USA, 1848-1918

Spätestens seit der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts entstanden in den deutschen „Communities“ in Nordamerika und Südwestafrika zahlreiche deutschsprachige Männerchöre und Sängerbünde, die zum Teil in engem Kontakt zum Herkunfts-land standen. „Deutscher Gesang“ bot dabei gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht gute Voraussetzungen, die „alte“ und „neue“ Welt miteinander zu verbinden: Musik vermag große räumliche und zeitliche Distanzen zu überwinden. Diese Eigenschaft kommt dem langen Untersuchungszeitraum zugute, gleichzeitig verspricht ihre Analyse Aufschluss über die Wahrnehmung von „Heimat“ und „Fremde“. Sie kann als Bindeglied zwischen verschiedenen „sozialen Welten“ bzw. Gruppen fungieren und auch die Grenze zwischen Realität und Fiktion, Vision und Illusion aufweichen.
In der Studie wird dargelegt, wie sich zum einen mittels nationalkultureller Traditi-nen und Musik für die Migranten die Distanz zwischen alter und neuer Heimat und damit die Unterschiede zwischen den jeweiligen Lebenswelten einebneten. Zum anderen markierte die Aufführung von „deutscher Musik“ im nichtdeutschen Raum genau diese Differenzen und konnte sie gegebenenfalls noch vergrößern. Die Studie will Handlungsräume und Deutungshorizonte in Prozessen von Evokation und Konsolidierung nationaler wie sozialer Identität ausleuchten und ist ein Beitrag zu einer transnational und transkulturell orientierten geschichtswissenschaftlichen Forschung.

Sabine Mecking, Prof. Dr. phil., ist Professorin für Landesgeschichte / Neuere und Neueste Geschichte an der Philipps-Universität Marburg. Sie hat Geschichte, Mathematik, Sport sowie Sozial- und Verwaltungswissenschaften in Münster und Gelsenkirchen studiert. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte sind Musik- und Kulturgeschichte, Historische Demokratie- und Protestforschung, Polizei- und Verwaltungsge-schichte, Stadt- und Regionalgeschichte. Publikationen zum Thema: Sounds of the Towns – Stadt und Musik, Moderne Stadtgeschichte 2017, H. 1; Inklusion und Exklusion. ‚Deutsche‘ Musik in Europa und Nordamerika, 1848-1945, Göttingen 2016 (hg. zus. mit Yvonne Wasserloos); Musik – Macht – Staat. Kulturelle, soziale und politische Wandlungsprozesse in der Moderne, Göttingen 2012 (hg. zus. mit Yvonne Wasserloos).

Prof. Dr. Bert van de Roemer (Amsterdam)

Art Opens the Book of Nature