Herzog-Ernst-Stipendiat*innen und Hiob-Ludolf-Fellows 2021
Mimi Cheng (Rochester, USA)
China on the Horizon
Rossella De Luca (Berlin)
Arabic Philology and the Circulation of Books among the Maronites between the 17th and 18th Centuries
Aniket De (Cambridge, USA)
One Realm, Many Kings: Space and Sovereignty in Early Modern India
Dr. Hyun-Ah Kim (Kampen)
Music, Rhetoric and Christian Hebraism in Early Modern Europe: Reuchlin's Reconstruction of the Modulata Recitatio
This project aims to demonstrate the relationship between music, rhetoric and Christian Hebraism within the intellectual, liturgical and religio-cultural context of early modern Europe, through examination of Reuchlin’s scholarship on the Hebrew cantillation and its relevance to humanist musical thought and practice. While there have been numerous studies about Reuchlin, few have delved into his scholarship on the Hebrew language itself. More fundamentally, existing studies of both Renaissance Christian Hebraism and Reuchlin have paid little attention to how the humanists studied Hebrew as the ‘divine language’ in which the Bible was not only written but also recited traditionally in tones. Also, modern scholarship on Renaissance rhetoric mainly concerns the ancient Greco-Roman legacy in the humanist writings, and no study has systematically evaluated the extent to which the Hebraist studies interacted with contemporary rhetoric and rhetorical music, and seldom do they consider the humanist scholarship on oriental languages and literature, which shows a unique cultural hybridity for its own sake in early modern Europe. Consequently, the relationship of rhetoric and Christian Hebraism remains unexplored, despite the central importance of biblical studies in the original languages in the early modern education. Focusing on Reuchlin’s scholarship on the cantillation and its influence on later Hebraist studies, this project seeks to reassess the importance of Reuchlin in relation to the humanist rhetoric and musical humanism that underlie the musical thought and practices of the Reformation. I demonstrate that Reuchlin’s Hebrew scholarship paved the way for the new oratorical framework of reciting and singing the biblical texts during the Reformation and thereafter. I argue that Reuchlin’s pedagogy of the Hebrew cantillation embodies the union of ‘rhetorical music’ (rhetorica musica) and ‘rhetorical theology’ (theologica rhetorica) – the two rhetorical notions which underlie the humanist revival of the ancient ‘modulated recitation’ (modulata recitatio). Furthermore, this project studies the impact of Reuchlin’s rhetorical approach to the cantillation on the new musico-liturgical practices of the Catholic Reformation, in terms of the humanist rhetoric which centred on the delivery (pronuntiatio). It thus demonstrates that the humanist Hebraic scholarship influenced the new musical theory and practice of the day, and examine the manner in which the cantillation was studied and utilised by Christian Hebraists, whose scholarship served for the new rhetorical framework of liturgical chant practice during the Reformation. Finally, this study will reflect on the religio-cultural and ethical implications of Reuchlin’s pedagogy of the cantillation and its legacy.
Hyun-Ah Kim (b. 1972) is a musicologist and a Reformation scholar. Her areas of expertise include the history and theology of Christian music, the ethics and spirituality of music, music as rhetoric, and music and religious education, with a special focus on the Reformation and Renaissance humanism. After studying music, theology and history in South Korea and the U.K. she completed a PhD in Historical Musicology at Durham University (2005). She then conducted post-doctoral research under the auspices of various academic institutions: she was Post-doctoral Fellow, Eisenbichler Fellow and Research Fellow at the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, University of Toronto (2007 – 2018); Meeter Family Research Fellow at the H. Henry Meeter Center for Calvin Studies (2019); Hardenberg Fellow at the Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek, Emden (2017); and Mayers Fellow at the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, California (2016). She was previously Regular Professor and Adjunct Professor at Trinity College in the University of Toronto and the Toronto School of Theology (2008 – 2015), where she taught a number of innovative courses on the intersections of music, theology, ethics, rhetoric, religion and spirituality. Currently, she is a Post-doctoral Research Fellow of the Theologische Universiteit Kampen and an International Research Fellow of the Europäische Melanchthon-Akademie Bretten, where she leads an international project, Reformation Musical History and Theology (RMHT). She is the author of three books, The Praise of Musicke 1586 (2017), The Renaissance Ethics of Music (2015) and Humanism and the Reform of Sacred Music in Early Modern England (2008), as well as numerous articles on the intersections of music, theology and ethics in the eras of Renaissance humanism and the Reformation and beyond. In addition, she is founder and coordinator of the International Network for Music, Ethics and Spirituality (INMES) which aims to promote research, teaching and creative work on the nexus of music, ethics and spirituality from perspectives that are cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and cross-confessional.
Marina Ferrari Waligora (La Plata)
Coal mining and fossils: The work of Schlotheim in Gotha and the forging of a cosmopolitan science
Aiste Malonyte (Groningen)
Information and Communication in the pre-Enlightenment Public Sphere. The Scientific Epistolary Network of Stanisław Lubieniecki
Tomás Valle (Paris)
Lutheran Unorthodoxy: Controversial Academic Networks c. 1560 1621
Dr. Patricia Aranha (Posen)
Eine Route zur letzten Grenze: Interpretationen und geographische Vorstellungen im brasilianischen Amazonas
Dr. Justin Begley (Helsinki)
Botany Before Linnaeus: Investigations of Vegetal Life in Europe, c. 1660-1740
Dr. John Woitkowitz (Cambridge)
Science, Networks, and Knowledge Spaces: August Petermann and the Open Polar Sea
Throughout the nineteenth century, the creation of geographical knowledges about the Arctic regions underwent fundamental changes. A new generation of geographers and cartographers began to re-imagine the polar regions as scholastic travel, collecting practices, and the distribution of geographical knowledge became organized into academic disciplines such as orography, oceanography, hydrology or meteorology. At the same time, an expanding landscape of geographical societies, social clubs, missionary organisations, and scientific print publications provided the intellectual infrastructure for a (re)configuration of ideas about the circumpolar world. In this project, I analyze the transimperial formation of ideas about the Arctic regions among European and American scientific networks and knowledge communities throughout the long nineteenth century. Specifically, the Arctic geography of August Heinrich Petermann, a German ‘science manager’ based in Edinburgh, London, and Gotha, theorising the existence of an open polar sea and a mythical land beyond the Arctic sea ice, shaped polar exploration agendas and Arctic geography throughout Europe and North America. Petermann’s tenure in Gotha at the Perthes publishing house indeed constituted a moment of transition in the broader Verwissenschaftlichung of geographical knowledge production during the nineteenth century. Based on research in libraries, museums, and archives in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, this study, therefore, examines how Petermann’s theories travelled among transimperial networks and knowledge communities within the context of the disciplinary formation of geography in the modern university system, the cartographical representation of spatial knowledges, and the construction of the Arctic regions in the European and American imaginaries. In doing so, this project draws new connections between the sites of colonial encounter, the repositories of Arctic knowledges, and the places of knowledge production.
John Woitkowitz is a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the project ERC Arctic Cultures: Sites of Collection in the Formation of the European and American Northlands (PI: Richard C. Powell) at the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge. He earned his PhD in International History with a dissertation on the cultural history of U.S.-Canadian defense relations in the Arctic at the University of Calgary in Canada. John’s research draws on global and postcolonial history, cultural history, and histories of science and knowledge.
Prof. Dr. Mirela Altić (Zagreb)
Mapping the Missionary World: 19th Century Missionary Atlases with Special Regard to Justus Perthes’ Production
Prof. Dr. Gioia Filocamo (Terni)
Music for Anatomical Dissections in Universities of the Modern Era
The project explores the possible reasons for the presence of music in some European anatomical theatres during the modern age, starting from the end of the sixteenth century, in order to finalize some conclusions in an original essay. The anatomical theatre of Padua was the first permanent structure – finished at the end of 1594 and still existing – where human anatomy was taught also through the dissection of corpses. This practice, although also practiced previously, was explicitly permitted by the brief of Pope Sixtus IV which authorized autopsies in the University of Tübingen in April 1482. The lectures held in Padua by the legendary anatomist Girolamo Fabrici d’Acquapendente (1533-1619), Gabriele Falloppio’s favorite pupil who succeeded him as a university lecturer, recalled several foreign students in the city, including many Protestant Germans gathered in the Natio Germanica Artistarum. In fact, it was only at the University of Padua that the Protestants could bypass the Catholic professio fidei imposed on students about to graduate by Pope Pius IV, with the bull In sacrosancta (1564), in compliance with the dictates of the Council of Trent: the extraordinary doctoral colleges of the city allowed hospitality to Catholic and Reformed students without the obligation of any oath. And in Padua we know of German students who requested and obtained musical performances to lift their spirits during anatomical dissections. My research project investigates the complex meaning of this need and the function of music in this specific context, then the meaning assigned by the Protestant culture to the spiritual reassurance induced by music, and the ways in which this would have happened or, at least, it would have been hoped. To my knowledge, the presence of music in other anatomical theatres is also witnessed in the universities of Leiden and Bologna, but it could have been requested in other cities of which I am not currently aware. This research is absolutely interdisciplinary, since it touches different areas but all connected to each other. Mainly: the history of university teaching, the history of university student society, the history of mentality, the history of philosophy (Platonic and Aristotelian), the social and religious function of music. This last aspect is what I would like to explore as much as possible. We know that music was present in the anatomical theatres of the modern age, but the chronicles refer mainly to celebratory and festive situations (inaugural lectures, carnival parties, etc.), which also included an autopsy to demonstrate the excellence of the teachers of the university itself: universities competed with each other also through this sort of events. But the case of Padua also testifies a peculiar context: some German students requested music during anatomy lessons intended for them, lessons that foreigners considered one of the main reasons of appeal in the university especially starting from the presence of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), a famous professor of anatomy in Padua until 1542. Vesalius was the author of the revolutionary De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Basel, Johannes Oporinus, 1543), a treatise that completely changed the approach of academic knowledge on the human body. According to his innovative vision, the anatomical dissection was needed to investigate the human body as a curious detective would have done, not only to confirm the structural details as they were described in classic books based on the intellectual framework drawn from Galenic medicine and Aristotelian natural philosophy. For Vesalius, this investigative activity on the human body was a physician’s task, and this opinion subverted the status of the typical anatomical lesson conducted until then in the universities, where there was the interaction up to three different subjects: (1) the lector, who sat far and above the corpse, ex cathedra, and declaimed the description of the human body by reading it from a classical Galenic treatise; (2) the ostensor, who showed on the naked body through a stick what the professor had just read from his book; (3) the dissector, the one who physically operated the dissection on the corpse starting with a cut from the sternum to the pubis: he was a surgeon-barber, a professional figure traditionally devoted to bloodletting and the treatment of venereal diseases. Therefore, Vesalius accompanied anatomical science at the gates of the seventeenth-century scientific revolution which undermined the model of Aristotelian interpretation of the world. The new vision of anatomy is clearly visible from the image shown on the frontispiece of his De humani corporis fabrica: we see Vesalius himself, the professor, portrayed while working on the corpse surrounded by the crowd of students. Modern science was beginning its journey. Coming back to the interesting case of the University of Padua, and to what I would like to understand better in relation to the changes in progress: why, then, did the demand for music during anatomical dissections come from German students? Is it possible that their education and background have been significant in formulating this request at the university? In particular: could there be a causal link between the Protestant mentality of German students and their need for music? Is it really certain that the presence of music in this peculiar context can only be linked to the ceremonial aspect of the anatomy? (this is the opinion of CYNTHIA KLESTINEC, Theaters of Anatomy: Students, Teachers, and Traditions of Dissection in Renaissance Venice, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011, pp. 106-107). What was the specific calming effect that one hoped to receive from the music itself during the disturbing ‘show’ of the anatomical lesson? And could this benefit have a religious value in some way linked to the awareness that the object of study lying on the anatomical table had an immortal soul? The chronicles document a very detached lexical attitude when anatomy teachers and medical students referred to the corpse to be dissected (called ‘the subject’), a corpse sometimes even stolen by the students themselves. But most of the time the corpses for anatomy belonged to healthy men died as a result of a death sentence: subjects, therefore, who linked the infamy of condemnation and ‘judicial killing’ to further infamy – considered dishonourable at most – of public anatomy. There were special city confraternities dealing specifically with the comfort of those condemned to death, the oldest of which originated at Bologna in 1336 and called “Santa Maria della Morte” (Saint Mary of Death). These institutions assured the prisoner full absolution from sins and the burial of his body in consecrated land in exchange for his full submission to his hard destiny, but sometimes the judicial authorities allowed medical students to take advantage of these corpses for their anatomical inquiries. I started the study around the project a few weeks ago, and my impression is that this research can be set from different points of view. I would mainly like to explore the presence of music in anatomical theatres to penetrate its specific emotional function: the De vita coelitus comparanda (1489, the third book of De vita) by the neoplatonic thinker Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), for example, enhances the medical qualities of music for the human soul, a direct energetic emanation of the divine love present in the cosmos. Music would be able to take care of the human spirit in parallel with what medicine does with the body: the dynamism of music would bring the soul closer to the higher spheres, purifying it. I am very interested to understand if the Protestantism of the German students enrolled at the University of Padua could be linked in some way to the philosophical conceptions circulating at that time. And to this goal, the rich section devoted to the cultural history of Protestantism in Early Modern Europe of the Gotha library would certainly provide a precious support difficult to find in other research centres. The library also stores several sixteenth- and seventeenth-century publications by Girolamo Fabrici d’Acquapendente, books on Andreas Vesalius (including the 1975 facsimile of his De humani corporis fabrica), and a very useful secondary bibliography on the conception of anatomy at the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that I have not yet been able to consult in Italy. It would therefore surely be very fruitful to be able to spend a period of study in this important German research centre.
Gioia Filocamo teaches Poetry for Music and Musical Dramaturgy at the Istituto superiore di Studi musicali di Terni (Italy), and Music and Society in the Medieval and Renaissance Age at the University of Parma. She received a Diploma in Piano (1988), a Degree in Drama, Art, and Music Studies (1994), a Ph.D. in the Philology of Music (2001), and a Ph.D. in Modern History (2015). She has held post-doctoral research fellowships in Bologna (University), Chicago (Newberry Library), Wolfenbüttel (Herzog August Bibliothek), and a scholarship at St John’s College, Cambridge. She has produced a complete critical edition of an anthology of late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century music, Florence, BNC, Panciatichi MS 27: Text and Context (Brepols 2010), co-edited Uno gentile et subtile ingenio, a Festschrift in honour of Bonnie Blackburn (Brepols 2009), and has published articles on various aspects of musical life in modern age Italy. Her interest focuses mainly on how music interacted with social life in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, but she has also worked on opera.
Prof. Dr. Elene Gogiashvili (Tbilissi)
Reiseberichte und Märchensammlungen: Kulturtransfer und seine narrativen Elemente in deutschen Reiseberichten über Georgien vom 17. bis 19.Jahrhundert
Prof. Dr. Inga Groote (Zürich)
Eine Wissensgeschichte der frühneuzeitlichen Musik
Prof. Dr. Carina Johnson (Claremont, USA)
Identity Markers and Boundaries in Early Modern Europe
Prof. Dr. Hiram Kümper (Mannheim)
Protestantischer Wucherdiskurs und Marktteilhabe
Prof. Dr. Ralf Lützelschwab (Berlin)
Negligenda? Spuren mendikantischer Predigttätigkeit in der Gothaer Forschungsbibliothek
Prof. Dr. Heather Madar (Arcata)
Sabers, Sultans and Sultanas: Ottoman Imagery in 17th Century German Court Culture
My project examines the use of Ottoman imagery at German courts in the 17th century. The focus is particularly on Ottoman imagery in court festivals and the use and collection of Ottoman objects. I am interested in the visual language and sources of this imagery, the political motivations of its usage and how it reflects or inflects images of the Ottomans during the 17th century particularly in light of the ongoing military campaigns against the Ottomans during this period and interactions with the Ottomans leading up to and subsequent to the 1683 Siege of Vienna.
My research to date has focused primarily on the court of the Electors of Saxony as well as on the court of the Margraves of Brandenburg in Halle, the ducal court of Württemberg and Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden-Baden. While in Gotha I will research the potential interest of the Gotha court in Ottoman imagery and themes as well as the collection of Türkenbeute in the library collection. I will also be exploring primary source documents from the 17th century that discuss the Ottomans and the various wars against the Ottomans in which Western European, particularly German-speaking powers participated.
Heather Madar is a professor of art history at Humboldt State University in Arcata, California. She earned her Ph.D. in History of Art from the University of California, Berkeley. Her work focuses on early modern printmaking and European interactions with the Ottoman empire. She is currently editing a collection of essays titled Prints as Agents of Global Exchange, 1500-1700, which is forthcoming from Amsterdam University Press. Her contribution to that collection, titled "The Sultan's Face Looks East and West" examines artistic exchange as reflected in portraits of Ottoman sultans.
Dr. Zef Segal (Ra’anana, Israel)
Maps on The Move: The Introduction of Motion into Modern Cartography