Universität Erfurt

Antike Kultur

Philostratoi

The Philostratoi

An Erfurt Conference, convenors Dr Cordula Bachmann and Prof Kai Brodersen

 

The 10th century encyclopedic Suda distinguishes three Philostratoi:

Φ421: Φιλόστρατος, Φιλοστράτου τοῦ καὶ Βήρου, Λημνίου σοφιστοῦ, καὶ αὐτὸς δεύτερος σοφιστής, σοφιστεύσας ἐν Ἀθήναις, εἶτα ἐν Ῥώμῃ, ἐπὶ Σευήρου τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἕως Φιλίππου. ἔγραψε μελέτας, Ἐπιστολὰς ἐρωτικάς, Εἰκόνας ἤτοι ἐκφράσεις ἐν βιβλίοις δ', Ἀγοράν, Ἡρωϊκόν, Διαλέξεις, Αἶγας ἢ περὶ αὐλοῦ, Ἀπολλωνίου βίον τοῦ Τυανέωσς ἐν βιβλίοις η', Βίους σοφιστῶν ἐν βιβλίοις δ', Ἐπιγράμματα, καὶ ἄλλα τινά. πλὴν πρῶτος ὀφείλει κεῖσθαι.
Φ422: Φιλόστρατος ὁ πρῶτος, Λήμνιος, υἱὸσ Βήρου, πατὴρ δὲ τοῦ δευτέρου Φιλοστράτου, σοφιστὴς καὶ αὐτός, σοφιστεύσας ἐν Ἀθήναις, γεγονὼς ἐπὶ Νέρωνος. ἔγραψε λόγους πανηγυρικοὺς πλείστους καὶ λόγους Ἐλευσινιακοὺς δ', μελέτας, Ζητούμενα παρὰ τοῖσ ῥήτορσι, Ῥητορικὰς ἀφορμάσ, Περὶ τοῦ ὀνόματος: ἔστι δὲ πρὸς τὸν σοφιστὴν Ἀντίπατρον: Περὶ τραγῳδίας βιβλία γ', Γυμναστικόν: ἔστι δὲ περὶ τῶν ἐν Ὀλυμπίᾳ ἐπιτελουμένων: Λιθογνωμικόν, Πρωτέα, Κύνα ἢ Σοφιστήν, Νέρωνα, Θεατήν, τραγῳδίας μγ', κωμῳδίασ ιδ', καὶ ἕτερα πλεῖστα καὶ λόγου ἄξια. ὅτι εἰς τὸν τοῦ Πυθαγόρου βίον ἔγραψε Φιλόστρατος ὁ Λήμνιο
ς τὸν Πυθαγόρα πρέποντα βιόν.
Φ423: Φιλόστρατος, Νερβιανοῦ, ἀδελφόπαιδος Φιλοστράτου τοῦ δευτέρου, Λήμνιος, καὶ αὐτὸς σοφιστής: καὶ παιδεύσας ἐν Ἀθήναις, τελευτήσας δὲ καὶ ταφεὶσ ἐν Λήμνῳ, ἀκουστής τε καὶ γαμβρὸς γεγονὼς τοῦ δευτέρου Φιλοστράτου. ἔγραψεν Εἰκόνας, Παναθηναϊκόν, Τρωϊκόν, Παράφρασιν τῆς Ὁμήρου Ἀσπίδος, μελέτας ε', τινὲσ δὲ καὶ τοὺςτῶν σοφιστῶν βίους ἐπ' αὐτὸν ἀναφέρουσι.

Φ421: Philostratus, son of Philostratus (also called Verus) a sophist from Lemnos. He too was a second sophist. He was a sophist in Athens, then in Rome, under the emperor Severus and until Philip. He wrote declamations; Erotic Letters*; Images*, i.e. descriptions (4 books); Market-Place; Heroicus*; Informal Discourses*; Goats, or On the Pipe; a life of Apollonius of Tyana (8 books)*; Lives of the Sophists (4 books)*; Epigrams; and certain other works. However, he should be placed first.
Φ422: Philostratus the first; of Lemnos; son of Verus; father of the second Philostratus. Also himself a sophist. He was a sophist in Athens, and lived in the time of Nero. He wrote very many panegyric speeches; four Eleusinian Speeches; declamations; Questions in the Orators; Rhetorical Resources; On the Noun (this is in reply to the sophist Antipater); On Tragedy (3 books); Gymnasticus (about what is performed at Olympia)*; Lithognomicus; Proteus; Dog, or Sophist; Nero*; Spectator; 43 tragedies; 14 comedies; and very many other works worth mentioning. Philostratus of Lemnos wrote The Life Befitting Pythagoras, on the life of Pythagoras.
Φ423: Philostratus, son of Nervianus (the nephew of the second Philostratus); of Lemnos. Also himself a sophist. He taught in Athens, but died and was buried in Lemnos. He was a pupil and son-in-law of the second Philostratus. He wrote Images*; Panathenaicus; Troicus; Paraphrase of Homer's Shield; 5 declamations. Some also attribute the Lives of the Sophists* to him.

Translations from Suda Online

So the Suda distinguishes three Philostratoi, belonging to three generations: Philostratos I (Φ422), his son Philostratos II (Φ421) and his grandson from a different child (and hence the latter’s nephew) Philostratos III (Φ423); however, this does not tally with the dating of Philostratos I under Nero and his son Philostratos II unter Severus. All three are referred to as sophists, i. e. members of the Second Sophistic, and all are authors credited with a wide variety of works.

Some of those works are preserved (they are marked with an asterisk above), though modern scholarship has not always followed the Suda in attributing them to one of the three. Given the manyfold topics and the contested attributions of the preserved works, they have been of interest to equally manyfold disciplines: the Eikones, for instance, were mainly studied by archaeologists and art historians, the Lives of the Sophists by historians of philosophy, the Heroicus and the Life of Apollonius by historians of religion, the Gymnasticus by historians of athletics and indeed by the creators of the modern Olympics, and the Erotic Letters (about half of them addressed to men) by experts in literature as well as by readers interested in LGBT and sexuality in general, historical and contemporary. Such a variety of the reception of the works of the Philostratoi has made it increasingly difficult to identify a unified “programme” of one Philostratos, or at least of the Philostratoi. In fact, the great variety of topics addressed by the Philostratoi have so far been studied mainly in isolation and along strictly disciplinary lines.

The conference will focus on the discrepancy between multi-disciplinary oeuvre and mono-disciplinary reception. It aims at transcending it by asking whether it is possible to discern a common programme in the preserved works by the Philostratoi. To achieve this, we want to try and identify the assumptions which underly the modern disciplinary reception of the works of the Philostratoi, and to understand these works better by studying them not individually, but as parts of a wider corpus. At the same time, and using the Philostratoi as a prime example, the conference aims at advancing the methodology of reception studies.

 

Philostratoi Conference in Erfurt: July 5th to 7th, 2018

Thursday - July 5th, 2018

13:00 Lunch
14:30 Welcome
15:00 "The image in the Clouds". Die Geschichte einer Philostratischen Denkfigur von Mantegna bis Gombrich (Nadia Koch, Salzburg)
15:45 Coffee
16:15 The reception of Philostratus’ Letters in a 20th century poet (Owen Hodkinson, Leeds)
17:00 An Epicurean message in Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius of Tyana and Heroicus? Testing the evidence (Gerard Boter, Amsterdam)
18:30 Dinner

Friday - July 6th, 2018

09:30 Rhetorical Lives, Rhetorical Letters (William Guast, Bristol)

10:15 Die Philostrat-Rezeption im wissenschaftlichen und belletristischen Werk des Angelo Poliziano (Peter Grossardt, Leipzig)
11:00 Coffee
11:30 How far do the Lives of the Sophists display features shared with other Philostratean works? (Ewen Bowie, Oxford)
12:30 Lunch
14:30 Apologies for the Author: The Treatment of Philostratus in Religious Controversies over Apollonius of Tyana (Adam Kemezis, Alberta)
15:15 Programmatic ecphrasis: The Imagines as myse en abyme of the Philostratean cor-pus? (Mario Baumann, Gießen)
16:00 Coffee
17:00 "ἐκ τῶν πινάκων" Aristaenetus as an Epistolary Viewer of Philostratus’ Picture Gallery (Regina Höschele, Toronto)
18:00 Dinner

Saturday July 7th, 2018
09:30 Perversions of the Epistolary Instinct: Desire and Form in the Letters of Philostratus (Emelen Leonard, Toronto)
10:15 Round Table: Philostratoi - methods of studying multiple receptions (Kai Brodersen, Erfurt)
11:15 Concluding Remarks (Lucia Athanassaki, Peter Bing, Jan-Jaap Flinterman)

12:30 Lunch

Further participants: Maxi Heinrich (Erfurt), Alexandra Trachsel (Hamburg) and others

The Philostratoi Conference will be hosted by the University of Erfurt from July 5th to 7th, 2018, at the Erfurt Augustinerkloster (where Martin Luther, the University's most famous alumnus, lived as a monk before the reformation).

A list of speakers and their topics had been made availabe on this website ( www.philostratoi.de ). All those interested were invited to attend and to register by June 1st, 2018, by emailing kai.brodersen@uni-erfurt.de .

Bibliography

Cordula Bachmann

  • "Totenbett mit Rüstung": Eine ikonographische Spurensuche in einem Fresko Moritz von Schwinds. In: Pia Müller-Tamm / Regine Heß (eds.): Bauen und Zeigen: Aus Geschichte und Gegenwart der Kunsthalle Karlsruhe. Bielefeld: Kerber 2014, 154-163
  • Wenn man die Welt als Gemälde betrachtet: Studien zu den Eikones Philostrats des Älteren. Heidelberg: Verlag Antike 2015. 269 pp.
  • "Zeichen der Zeit in Philostrats Eikones", in: Jacobus Bracker  und Tim Jegodzinski (Hgg.): Bilder: Zeitzeichen und Zeitphänomene, Visual Past 4.1, 2017, 21-34 > http://www.visualpast.de/archive/pdf/vp2017_0021.pdf
  • "Bildbetrachtung unter dem Segel der Rhetorik. Eine Kreuzfahrt in den Eikones Philostrats des Älteren", in Susanne Froehlich und Mario Baumann (Hgg.): Auf segelbeflügelten Schiffen das Meer befahren. Das Erlebnis der Schiffsreise im späten Hellenismus und in der römischen Kaiserzeit, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 2018 (in prep.)
  • Philostratos: Bilder einer Ausstellung (Eikones). Griechisch und Deutsch. Wiesbaden: Marix 2018

Mario Baumann

  • Bilder schreiben. Virtuose Ekphrasis in Philostrats Eikones, Millennium-Studien 33, Berlin / New York: De Gruyter, 2011
  • "Der Betrachter im Bild. Metalepsen in antiken Ekphrasen" in: Ute Eisen /Peter von Möllendorff (Hrsg.), Über die Grenze. Metalepse in Text- und Bildmedien des Altertums, Narratologia 39, Berlin / Boston: De Gruyter, 2013, 257–291.
  • "Sailing the sea, sailing an image: Periplus and mediality in Diodorus’ Bibliotheke and Philostratus’ Imagines", in: Rethinking late Hellenistic Greek Literature and the Second Sophistic" (Conference St Andrews, 5.–6.9.2013, publication in prep.).

Gerard J. Boter

  • Towards a New Critical Edition of Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius: the Affiliation of the Manuscripts, in: Demoen, K., Praet, D. (eds.) Theios Sophistes (Leiden-Boston 2009), 21-56
  • Studies in the Textual Tradition of Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius of Tyana, RHT n.s. 9, 2014, 1-49
  • The Title of Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius of Tyana, JHS 135 (2015), 1-7

Ewen Bowie

  • "Philostratus: the life of a sophist", in Philostratus, E.L.Bowie and J.Elsner (eds.), Cambridge University Press 2009, 19-32
  • "Quotation of earlier texts in τὰ ἐς τὸν Τυανέα Ἀπολλώνιον," in Theios Sophistes. Essays on Flavius Philostratus' Vita Apollonii, K. Demoen and D. Pratt (eds.), (Mnemosyne Supplement, Leiden: Brill 2009), 57-73
  • "Apollonius of Tyana: tradition and reality’", in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.16.2 (Berlin 1978) 1652-99
  • "The Sophist as historian", in: G. Zecchini (ed.), Lo Storico Antico. Mestieri e figure sociali. Atti del convegno Internazionale (Roma, 8-10 novembre 2007) (Bari: Edipuglia 2010) 199-212
  • "Mapping Greece: Apollonius’ authorised version", in A. Gangloff (ed.), Lieux de mémoire en Orient grec à l'époque impériale (Bern, P. Lang, 2013) 37-61

Kai Brodersen

  • Philostratos, Leben der Sophisten. Griechisch und Deutsch. Wiesbaden: Marix 2014. 256 pp.
  • Philostratos: Sport in der Antike (Peri Gymnastikes / Über das Training). Griechisch und Deutsch. Wiesbaden: Marix 2015. 128 pp.
  • Philostratos, Erotische Briefe / Epistolai Erotikai. Griechisch und Deutsch. Wiesbaden: Marix 2017. 128 pp.
  • "Philostratos und das Oktoberfest: Wie ein wiederentdeckter antiker Text zur Entstehung der Olympischen Spiele der Neuzeit beitrug", in: Gymnasium 121 (2014) 375-392  (English version in: Kai Brodersen, Classics outside Classics. Rezeption der Antike 3, Heidelberg 2015).

Peter Grossardt

  • Einführung, Übersetzung und Kommentar zum Heroikos von Flavius Philostrat, Basel 2006
  • Praeconia Maeonidae magni. Studien zur Entwicklung der Homer-Vita in archaischer und klassischer Zeit, Tübingen 2016

William Guast

  • 'Greek Declamation beyond Philostratus' Second Sophistic', JHS (forthcoming)
  • ‘Accepting the omen: external reference in Greek declamation’, Cambridge Classical Journal 63 (2017), 82–102

Owen Hodkinson

  • ‘How beautiful are the feet? Fetish in the Erotic Epistles of Philostratus’, in The Owl [an Oxford student magazine/journal] 12, Autumn 2007, 25-8.
  • ‘Letters, Greek’ and ‘Pseudepigrapha, literary’ in: Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford University Press), ed. M.Gagarin, Oxford 2010
  • ‘Some distinguishing features of deliberate fictionality in Greek biographical narratives’, Phrasis 51.1 ( = Greek Fictional Biography, ed. P. Borghart and K. de Temmerman), 2010, 11-35.
  • Authority and Tradition in Philostratus’ Heroikos. Lecce 2011
  • ‘Philostrati’ in The Encyclopedia of Ancient History (Wiley-Blackwell) ed. R. Bagnall, K. Brodersen, et al. 2012
  • ‘Epistolography’, in A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, ed. T.K. Hubbard. Oxford 2014,  463-478.
  • ‘Epistolography’, in: Oxford Handbook to the Second Sophistic, ed. D.S. Richter and W.A. Johnson, Oxford 2017, 509-525.
  • ‘The persona of Philostratus’ fictional epistolographer in the Erotic Epistles’, in Brieffiktionen – Epistolary Fictions – Fictions Épistolaires, ed. E. Marquis. Berlin und Boston forthcoming
  • ‘Philostratus, Lucius Flavius’, in: Oxford Bibliographies Online. Oxford 2017 (http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195389661/obo-9780195389661-0252.xml )

Adam Kemezis

  • Greek Narratives of the Roman Empire under the Severans: Cassius Dio, Philostratus and Herodian. Cambridge University Press, 2014.
  • "Flavian Greek Literature," in A Companion to the Flavian Age, Andrew Zissos ed.. Wiley-Blackwell, 2016: 450-68.
  • "Politics and the Fictional Narrator in Philostratus' Apollonius," in CA 33.1 (2014): 61-101.
  • "Narrative of Cultural Geography in Philostratus' Lives of the Sophists," in Regards sur la Seconde Sophistique. Pascale Fleury and Thomas Schmidt, eds., U. of Toronto Press, 2011: 3-22.

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