| Max-Weber-Kolleg, SPF Religion. Gesellschaft. Weltbeziehung., Forschung

From a Letter to an Oppressive Symbol – Notes on "Z"

Two years ago, on 24 February 2022, Russia began its invasion of Ukraine. Since then, pictures of Russian tanks with a white "Z" have gone around the world. There is much speculation about the origin and meaning of the Z symbol. Professor Claudine Moulin is a fellow at the Max-Weber-Kolleg at the University of Erfurt and a visiting researcher in the "Religion & Urbanity" collaborative research group. In an article for the research group's blog, she provides a socio-cultural and cultural-historical insight into the emergence and use of the letter "Z" as a symbol.

The article was first published in German in the journal "Aptum, Zeitschrift für Sprachkritik und Sprachkultur" (19th volume, 2023, issues 2+3). An English and revised version of the text has now also been published on the freely accessible blog "Hypotheses" of the collaborative research group "Religion and Urbanity".


Claudine Moulin
Prof. Dr. Claudine Moulin
(Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies)
Weltbeziehungen / C19.03.10