Prof. Dr. Tilmann Betsch

Prof. Dr. Tilmann Betsch

Professor of Social, Organizational, and Economic Psychology

Office: C23 - Mitarbeitergebäude 1 / 813

Phone: +49 361 737-2221

Office hours: I am doing a research semester in the winter semester 2023/24.

If you have urgent questions regarding teaching and examinations, please contact Ms. Engel in the secretary's office:

Positions & Memberships

Research focus

My research focuses primarily on the psychology of judgement and decision making (JDM).

In our everyday lives we face many situations that require judgements and decision making. To master these situations, we rely on learned attitudes, preferences, and routines. My research staff and I research the conditions under which behavioral tendencies become routines (routinization) as well as when individuals diverge from learned behaviors and preferences (flexibility).

Judgement and decision making requires diverse information processing procedures. I am especially interested in the interplay between intuition and analytical thinking.

In more recent years I have examined the development of decision making and judgement competencies in childhood. In cooperation with Erfurt daycare centers and schools, our team researches how children processes and utilize information in risky situations.


Journal articles

Betsch, T., Pfersich, L. & Tannert, N. (2022). Autokratische versus naturwissenschaftliche Konzepte über Erkenntnis und Wissenschaft. Skeptiker, Zeitschrift für kritisches Denken, 3/2022, 101-106.

Aßmann, L., Betsch, T., Lang, A., & Lindow, S. (2022). When even the smartest fail to prioritise: overuse of information can decrease decision accuracy. Journal of Cognitive Psychology.

Lindow, S., & Betsch, T. (2021). Pre-schoolers’ competence to use advice in everyday decision contexts. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 215, Article 105311.

Betsch, T., Lindow, S., Lehmann, A., & Stenmans, R. (2021). From perception to inference: Utilization of probabilities as decision weights in children. Memory and Cognition.

Betsch, T., Aßmann, L., & Glöckner, A. (2020). Paranormal beliefs and individual differences: Story seeking without reasoned review. Heliyon, 6.

Betsch, T., Lehmann, A., Lindow, S., & Buttelmann, D. (2020). Children's trust in informants in risky decisions. Cognitive Development, 53, 100846.

Lindow, S., & Betsch, T. (2019). Children's adaptive decision making and the costs of information search. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 60, 24–34.

Betsch, T., Lehmann, A., Jekel, M., Lindow, S., & Glöckner, A. (2018). Children’s application of decision strategies in a compensatory environment. Judgment and Decision Making, 13, 514–528.

Betsch, T., Wünsche, K., Großkopf, A., Schröder, K., & Stenmans, R. (2018). Sonification and visualization of predecisional information search: Identifying toolboxes in children. Developmental Psychology, 54, 474-481.

Betsch, T., Chalupny, J., Grünewald, S., Hofert, L., & Männer, L.-S. (2018). Das Geschäft mit den Globuli - Wird in deutschen Apotheken evidenzbasiert beraten? Skeptiker, 1, 9-13.

Lang, A., & Betsch, T. (2018). Neglect of probabilities in decision making with and without feedback. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 191.

Lindow, S., & Betsch, T. (2018). Child decision-making: On the burden of pre-decisional information search. Journal of Cognition and Development, 19, 137-164.

Dorrough, A., Wille, A., Glöckner, A., & Betsch, T. (2017). When knowledge activated from memory intrudes on probabilistic inferences from description - the case of stereotypes. Acta Psychologica, 180, 64-78.

Lindow, S., Lang, A., & Betsch, T. (2017). Holistic information integration in child decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30, 1131-1146.

Leder, J., & Betsch, T. (2016) Risky choice in interpersonal context: Do people dare because they care? Journal of Economic Psychology. 52, 1–23.

Betsch, T., Lehmann, A., Lindow, S., Lang, A., & Schoemann, M. (2016). Lost in Search: (Mal-) Adaptation to probabilistic decision environments in children and adults. Developmental Psychology, 52, 311-325.

Winkler, I., Glauer, M., Betsch, T., & Sedlmeier, P. (2015). The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration. PLoS One, 10, e0126974.

Betsch, T., Lindow, S., Engel, C., Ulshöfer, C., & Kleber, J. (2015) Has the world changed? My neighbor might know - Effects of social context on routine deviation. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 28, 50–66.

Betsch, T., Quittenbaum, N., & Lüders, M. (2015). On the robustness of the quizzing effect under real teaching conditions. German Journal of Educational Psychology - Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 29, 109-114.

Betsch, T., Lang, A., Lehmann, A., & Axmann, J.M. (2014). Utilizing probabilities as decision weights in closed and open information boards: A comparison of children and adults. Acta Psychologica, 153, 74-86.

Söllner, A., Bröder, A., Glöckner, A. & Betsch, T. (2014). Single-process versus multiple-strategy models of decision making: Evidence from an information intrusion paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 146, 84-96. (Open Access:

Betsch, T. (2013). The subjective understanding of guideline recommendations and of the risks of the side effects of medication. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 110, 661–2.

Bröder, A., Glöckner, A., Betsch, T., Link, D., & Ettlin, F. (2013). Do people learn option or strategy routines in multi-attribute decisions? The answer depends on subtle factors. Acta Psychologica, 143, 200-209.

Kleber, J., Dickert, S., & Betsch, T. (2013). The influence of differential focus on the endowment effect in lottery tickets. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 72, 159–164.

Betsch, T., & Lang, A. (2013). Utilization of probabilistic cues in the presence of irrelevant information: A comparison of risky choice in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 108–125.

Glöckner, A., & Betsch, T. (2012). Decisions beyond boundaries: When more information is
processed faster than less. Acta Psychologica, 139,532-542.

Betsch, T., & Held, C. (2012). Rational decision making: Balancing RUN and JUMP modes of analysis. Mind and Society, 11, 69-80.

Glöckner, A., & Betsch, T. (2011). The empirical content of theories in judgment and decision making: Shortcomings and remedies. Judgment and Decision Making, 6, 711–721.

Betsch, T. (2011) The stability of preferences -- A social cognition view. Frontiers in Psychology (Cognition), 2, 290.

Betsch, C., Renkewitz, F., Ulshöfer, C., & Betsch, T. (2011). The influence of narrative vs. statistical information on perceiving vaccination risks. Medical Decision Making, 31, 742-753.

Glöckner, A., & Betsch, T. (2010). Accounting for critical evidence while being precise and avoiding the strategy selection problem in a parallel constraint satisfaction approach: A reply to Marewski (2010). Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 23, 468–472.

Glöckner, A., Betsch, T., & Schindler, N. (2010). Coherence shifts in probabilistic inference tasks. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 23, 439-462.

Betsch, T., & Glöckner, A. (2010). Intuition in judgment and decision making: Extensive thinking without effort. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 279-294.

Nuszbaum, M., Voss, A., Klauer, K.C., & Betsch,T. (2010). Assessing individual differences in the use of haptic information using a German translation of the 'Need for Touch' scale. Social Psychology, 41, 263-274.

Betsch, T., Glauer, M., Renkewitz, F., Winkler, I., & Sedlmeier, P. (2010). Encoding, storage and judgment of frequency and duration. Judgment and Decision Making, 5, 347-364.

Betsch, C., Renkewitz, F., Betsch, T., & Ulshöfer, C. (2010). The influence of vaccine-critical websites on perceiving vaccination risks. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 446–455.

Kaufmann, M., & Betsch, T. (2009). Origins of the sample-size effect in explicit evaluative judgments. Experimental Psychology, 56, 344-353.

Glöckner , A., & Betsch, T. (2008). Multiple-reason decision making based on automatic processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 34, 1055-1075.

Glöckner , A., & Betsch, T. (2008). Do people make decisions under risk based on ignorance? An empirical test of the priority heuristic against cumulative prospect theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 107, 75-95.

Glöckner , A., & Betsch, T. (2008). Modelling option and strategy choices with connectionist networks: Towards an integrative model of automatic and deliberate decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 3, 215-228.

Betsch, T., & Glöckner, A. (2008). Towards an integrative model of automatic and deliberative decision making. International Journal of Psychology, 43, 547.

Glöckner, A., & Betsch, T. (2008). How to replace multiple strategies by multiple representations: Simulations and evidence. International Journal of Psychology, 43, 547.

Glauer, M., Häusig, S., Krüger, M., Betsch, T., Renkewitz, F., Sedlmeier, P., & Winkler, I. (2008). Typizitätsnormen für Vertreter von 30 Kategorien. Neurolinguistik, 21, 5-46.

Betsch, T., Kaufmann, M., Lindow, F., Plessner, H., Hoffmann, K. (2006). Different principles of information aggregation in implicit and explicit attitude formation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 887-905.

Betsch, T. (2005). Wie beeinflussen Routinen das Entscheidungsverhalten? Psychologische Rundschau, 56, 261-270.

Betsch, T., Haberstroh, S., Molter, B., & Glöckner, A. (2004). Oops, I did it again -- relapse errors in routinized decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 93, 62-74.

Betsch, C., Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (2004). Intuition: Wann Sie Ihren Bauch entscheiden lassen können. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 6, 81-83.

Betsch, T., Hoffmann, K., Hoffrage, U., & Plessner, H. (2003). Intuition beyond recognition: When less familiar events are liked more. Experimental Psychology, 50, 49-54.

Plessner, H., & Betsch, T. (2002). Refereeing in sports is supposed to be a craft, not an art. Response to Mascarenhas, Collins, and Mortimer (2002). Journal of Sport and Exercise, 24, 334-337.

Betsch, T., Haberstroh, S., & Höhle, C. (2002). Explaining and predicting routinized decision making: A review of theories. Theory and Psychology, 12, 453-488.

Plessner, H., & Betsch, T. (2001). Sequential effects in important referee decisions: The case of penalties in soccer. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 23, 254-259.

Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (2001). Financial incentives do not pave the road to good experimentation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 404.

Betsch, T., Plessner, H., Schwieren, C., & Gütig, R. (2001). I like it but I don‘t know why: A value-account approach to implicit attitude formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 242-253.

Betsch, T., Haberstroh, S., Glöckner, A., Haar, T., & Fiedler, K. (2001). The effects of routine strength on information acquisition and adaptation in recurrent decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 84, 23-53.

Fiedler, K., Brinkmann, J., Betsch, T., & Wild, B. (2000). A sampling approach to conditional probability judgment: Beyond base-rate neglect and statistical format. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 399-418.

Betsch, T., Glöckner, A., & Haberstroh, S. (2000). COMMERCE ‑ A Micro‑World simulation to study routine maintenance and deviation in repeated decision making. Methods of Psychological Research, 5, No 2.

Betsch, T., Brinkmann, J., Fiedler, K., & Breining, K. (1999). When prior knowledge overrules new evidence: Adaptive use of decision strategies and the role of behavioral routines. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 58, 151‑160.

Betsch, T. & Kraus, M. (1999). Die Auswirkungen von Ergebnis-Framing und dem Wechsel der Problemdomäne auf monetäre Entscheidungen. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 46, 296-304.

Betsch, T., Schmid, J, Glaubrecht, M., Kurzenhäuser, S., & Dondelinger, A. (1999). Zur empirischen Fundierung des Konzepts der feindseligen Aggression (An Empirical Test of the Concept of Hostile Aggression). Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 30, 194-206.

Betsch, T., Siebler, F., Marz, P., Hormuth, S., & Dickenberger, D. (1999). The moderating role of category salience and category focus in judgments of set size and frequency of occurrence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 463-481.

Betsch, T., & Fiedler, K. (1999). Understanding conjunction effects: The role of implicit mental models. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 75-93.<75::AID-EJSP916>3.0.CO;2-F

Betsch, T., Fiedler, K., & Brinkmann, J. (1998). Behavioral routines in decision making: The effects of novelty in task presentation and time pressure on routine maintenance and deviation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 861-878 .<861::AID-EJSP899>3.0.CO;2-D

Bless, H., Betsch, T., & Franzen, A. (1998). Framing the framing effect: The impact of context cues on solutions to the “Asian Disease” problem. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 287-291.<287::AID-EJSP861>3.0.CO;2-U

Betsch, T., Biel, G.-M., Eddelbüttel, C., & Mock, A. (1998). Natural sampling and base- rate neglect. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 269-273.<269::AID-EJSP872>3.0.CO;2-U

Betsch, T. (1997). Buchbesprechung: Selg, H., Mees, U. & Berg, D. (1997). Psychologie der Aggressivität. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 44, 686-690.

Marz, P., Dickenberger, D., Betsch, T., & Siebler, F. (1996). Selbstkonzept und Internalität - Faktorielle Validität des Fragebogens zu Kompetenz- und Kontrollüberzeugungen (FKK) bei einer ostdeutschen Stichprobe. Diagnostica, 42, 377-385.

Betsch, T., & Dickenberger, D. (1993). Why do aggressive movies make people aggressive? An attempt to explain short-term effects of the depiction of violence on the observer. Aggressive Behavior, 19, 137-149.<137::AID-AB2480190206>3.0.CO;2-S

Book Chapters

Betsch, T. (2018). Medienwahl – Anmerkungen aus der Sicht der Entscheidungsforschung. In C. Wilhelm, N. Podschuweit, M. Hofer & T. Koch (Eds). Medienwahl - Aktuelle Konzepte, Befunde und methodische Zugänge (pp. 19-34). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Betsch, T., & Roth, P. (2018). Intuitive thinking. In L.J. Ball & V.A. Thompson (eds.), Routledge international handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 37- 56). New York: Taylor & Francis – Routledge.

Betsch,T., Ritter, J., Lang, A., & Lindow, S. (2016). Thinking beyond boundaries. In L. Macchi, M. Bagassi, & R. Viale (Eds.), Cognitive Unconscious and Human Rationality (pp. 241-256). MIT Press: Cambridge (MA).

Betsch, T. (2008). Klugheit im Umweltbezug: Die Balance zwischen Routinisierung und Kontextualisierung. In A. Scherzberg et al. (ed.), Klugheit (pp. 153-180). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Betsch, T. (2008). The nature of intuition and its neglect in research on judgment and decision making. In H. Plessner, C. Betsch and T.Betsch (eds.), Intuition in Judgment and Decision Making (pp.3-22). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Plessner, H., Betsch, T., Schallies, E., & Schwieren, C. (2008). Automatic online formation of implicit attitudes towards politicians as a basis for intuitive voting behaviour. In H. Plessner, C. Betsch and T.Betsch (eds.), Intuition in Judgment and Decision Making(pp. 107-117). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Betsch, T. (2005). Preference theory – an affect-based approach to recurrent decision making. In T. Betsch & S. Haberstroh (Eds.). The routines of decision making (pp. 39-65). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (2005). Research on the routines of decision making: Advances and prospects. In T. Betsch & S. Haberstroh (Eds.). The routines of decision making (pp. 359-376). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (2005). The routines of decision making: Preface. In T. Betsch & S. Haberstroh (Eds.). The routines of decision making (pp. ix-xxv). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Betsch, T., Plessner, H., & Schallies, E. (2004). The value-account model of attitude formation. In G.R. Maio & G. Haddock (eds.), Contemporary perspectives on the psychology of attitudes (pp. 251-273). Hove: Psychology Press.

Betsch, T., & Pohl, D. (2002). The availability heuristic: A critical examination. In P.Sedlmeier & T. Betsch (Eds.), Etc. - Frequency processing and cognition (pp. 109-119). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Betsch, T., & Sedlmeier, P. (2002). Frequency processing and cognition: Stock-taking and outlook. In P.Sedlmeier & T. Betsch (Eds.), Etc. - Frequency processing and cognition (pp. 302-318). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haberstroh, S., Betsch, T., Glöckner, A., Haar, T., & Stiller, A. (2005). The impact of routines on deliberate decisions: The microworld-simulation COMMERCE. In T. Betsch & S. Haberstroh (Eds.). The routines of decision making (pp. 211-229). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Haberstroh, S., & Betsch, T. (2002). Online strategies versus memory-based strategies in frequency estimation. In P.Sedlmeier & T. Betsch (Eds.), Etc. - Frequency processing and cognition (pp. 205-220). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sedlmeier, P., Betsch, T., & Renkewitz, F. (2002). Frequency processing and cognition: Introduction and overview. In P.Sedlmeier & T. Betsch (Eds.), Etc. - Frequency processing and cognition (pp. 1-17). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dickenberger, D. & Betsch, T. (1992). Sozialpsychologie und Pädagogik. In: B.Möller (Ed.),Logik der Pädagogik - Pädagogik als interdisziplinäres Aufgabengebiet, Band II. Oldenburg: BIS.

Monographs and editorial work

Betsch, T. (2022). Science Matters! Wissenschaftlich statt querdenken. Heidelberg: Springer

Betsch, T., Funke, J., & Plessner, H. (2010). Denken: Urteilen, Entscheiden und Problemlösen. Heidelberg: Springer.

Scherzberg, A., Betsch, T., Blanke, H.-J., Peukert, H., Thumfart, A., Walgenbach, P., & Wegner, G. (2008) (Eds.). Klugheit – Begriffe, Konzepte, Anwendungen. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Plessner, H. Betsch, C., & Betsch, T. (2008) (Eds.). Intuition in judgment and decision making. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Scherzberg, A., Betsch, T., Blanke, H.-J., Walgenbach, P., Waschkuhn, A., & Wegner, G. (2006) (Eds.). Kluges Entscheiden - Disziplinäre Grundlagen und interdisziplinäre Verknüpfungen. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (2005) (Eds.). The routines of decision making. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum

Sedlmeier, P., & Betsch, T. (2002) (Eds.). Etc. - Frequency processing and cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Betsch, T., & Schmid, J. (1999). Aggression. Themenheft der Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie (Vol. 30).

Betsch, T. (1995). Das Routinen-Modell der Handlungsselektion. Aachen: Shaker.