Early Modern Natural Law around the Baltic Sea: Teaching and Use
Early Modern Natural Law around the Baltic Sea: Teaching and Use
Conference of the Network on Natural Law 1625-1850 in Collaboration with the University of Tartu and the Research Centre for Early-Modern Natural Law (Forschungszentrum Gotha & Max-Weber-Kolleg)
University of Tartu, Estonia, 2–3 September 2021
The aim of the conference is to take a comparative look at the teaching and use of natural law around the Baltic Sea in the early modern period. The region was at that time dominated by two Protestant monarchies, Sweden and Denmark-Norway, which also exercised control over a number of territories on the eastern and southern coasts of the Sea. With its strong links to German and Dutch academic culture, the region stood at the forefront of the formation of natural law as an academic discipline: in Uppsala, natural law was taught on the basis of Grotius as early as in 1655, and Samuel Pufendorf published his most influential works as a professor at the University of Lund in the 1670s. In the Danish Knights’ Academy in Sorø Grotius and Selden were taught between the 1630s and 50s, Pufendorf, Thomasius et al. at the similar academy in Copenhagen and at the University from 1690 onwards. Ius naturae et gentium was also taught at the University of Kiel (Schleswig-Holstein, in union with Denmark) from its foundation in 1665, and it also proliferated in the Swedish provincial universities of Dorpat (Livonia), Åbo (Finland) and Greifswald (Pomerania). As in other European countries, the use of natural law in the region was not restricted to academic teaching and theoretical discussion but became also an intellectual resource for conceptualizing and legitimating political developments, and informing legal, political and social reforms.
Rather than focusing on close textual analysis of particular theoretical works, we look at the uses of natural law in these academic and pragmatic contexts. In particular, we explore:
Factors that influenced the introduction (or disappearance) of natural law as a dominant academic discipline, language or culture, and its position in relation to other traditions, in specific national or regional contexts
The reception and adaptation of both well- and less-known natural law authors and works (Grotius, Pufendorf, Thomasius, Wolff, Rachel, Burlamaqui, etc.) in the academic environment, either at a particular university, or comparatively in a broader national or regional context
The theoretical foci of natural law lectures, disputations, textbooks, etc., and their relationship with various pragmatic contexts of the period
The practical and polemical use of natural law in the efforts of legitimation outside academia, both domestically and internationally (e.g., the questions of absolutism, political, social and religious reform and “improvement”, colonialism, serfdom, protection of individual rights, etc).
Participation is free and open to all interested, but it is necessary to register with Pärtel Piirimäe (firstname.lastname@example.org )
The conference is organized by the Chair in Intellectual History, University of Tartu (Prof. Pärtel Piirimäe), in conjunction with the international research project “Natural Law 1625-1850” (Halle/Erfurt, directors Knud Haakonssen, Frank Grunert and Louis Pahlow).
Academic Natural Law: Halle, Kiel, Copenhagen. Workshop on current Projects
Workshop: Academic Natural Law: Halle, Kiel, Copenhagen. Workshop on current Projects
Workshop des International Network "Natural Law 1625-1850" in Zusammenarbeit mit IZEA, Halle und der Forschungsstelle Frühneuzeitliches Naturrecht am Max-Weber-Kolleg der Universität Erfurt und dem Forschungszentrum Gotha.
Organisation und wissenschaftliche Leitung: Prof. Dr. Dr. Knud Haakonssen (Erfurt/ St Andrews) und Dr. Frank Grunert
Das vom Max-Weber-Kolleg der Universität Erfurt und vom IZEA getragene europäische Forschungsnetzwerk Natural Law 1625-1850. An International Research Project hat sich u.a. die Aufgabe gestellt, die akademischen Traditionen des Naturrechts europaweit in einzelnen maßgeblichen Bildungseinrichtungen quellennah aufzuarbeiten, und zwar mit Blick auf die Inhalte, die institutionellen Voraussetzungen und die kulturellen wie politischen Wirkungen.
Dazu wurden und werden einzelne Projekte an verschiedenen europäischen Universitäten betrieben und weitere Vorhaben vorbereitet. Der Workshop “Academic Natural Law: Halle, Kiel, Copenhagen” ist als “Workshop on current Projects” geplant und soll die Gelegenheit bieten, neben ersten Befunden vor allem die weiteren Perspektiven einzelner Forschungsvorhaben zu diskutieren. Im Zentrum stehen dabei drei Universitäten, die bei der Formierung des nach-grotianischen Naturrechts in einer engen Beziehung standen. Ergänzt werden die Beiträge durch Referate zum Naturrecht an der schwedischen Universität in Tartu und zum frühneuzeitlichen Naturrecht in Osteuropa.
Marginalia at the centre: Contrasting readings of Grotius, De iure Belli ac Pacis
Workshop: Marginalia at the centre: Contrasting readings of Grotius, De iure Belli ac Pacis
Workshop of the Network on Natural Law 1625-1850 Research Centre for Early-Modern Natural Law (Forschungszentrum Gotha & Max-Weber-Kolleg)
Forschungszentrum Gotha 26. November 2019, 9.30-15.30
The workshop explores the extraordinary variety of uses to which Hugo Grotius’s De iure belli ac pacis was put. We do so by case studies of marginal annotations in Grotius’s work by four strikingly different readers. The first is the ultra-orthodox Lutheran professor of theology Ernst Salomo Cyprian (1673-1745), whose copy of Grotius is preserved in the Gotha Forschungsbibliothek where he was librarian for many years. Second is the Mainzer statesman and scholar, Johann Christian von Boineburg (1622-72), who converted to catholicism, and whose extensive library, including Grotius’s work, is in the Universitätsbibliothek Erfurt. Third is the Hallenser pietist Carl Hildebrand von Canstein (1667-1719), founder of the Cansteinsche Bibelanstalt, whose Grotius is in the Bibliothek der Franckeschen Stiftungen. Finally, we consider a copy of De iure belli in the British Library whose anonymous marginalia appear to have close links to the teaching of the jurist Johann Jacob Vitriarius (1679-1745) in Leiden in the 1730s.
Venue: Forschungszentrum Gotha der Universität Erfurt, Schloßberg 2, 99867 Gotha
Programme organisers: Martin Mulsow, Frank Grunert, Knud Haakonssen
Registration: The meeting is free and open for all interested, but we ask you to register by e-mail to Dr. Mikkel Munthe Jensen: email@example.com
Network Conference 2019: Early-Modern Natural Law in Eastern Europe
Conference of the Network on Natural Law 1625-1850 Research Centre for Early-Modern Natural Law
Max Weber Centre, Erfurt 21-23 November 2019
In 2019, the Network’s conference is being organised by Gábor Gángó and Knud Haakonssen. The theme is the reception of natural law during the early-modern period in the political cultures to the east of the German Empire. In keeping with the programme of the Network, the conference is inter-disciplinary in its approach and is mainly, but not exclusively, focussed on academic natural law. Natural law in Eastern Europe has only be explored to a limited degree, and the conference will open up for new research by papers devoted to natural law teaching in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Elbląg, Toruń, Prague, Vienna, Tyrnau (Trnava), Sárospatak and Klausenburg (Cluj-Napoca). The particular character of natural law discussions in the different religious and political contexts of Eastern Europe will be highlighted, as indicated by the titles in the programme.
Venue: Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Steinplatz 2, Erfurt.
Registration: The meeting is free and open for all interested, but we ask you to register by e-mail to Dr. Mikkel Munthe Jensen: Mikkel.Jensen@uni-erfurt.de
After Pufendorf: Natural law and the passions in Germany and Scotland
Network Conference 2018: After Pufendorf: Natural law and the passions in Germany and Scotland
Natural Law 1625-1850: An International Research Project Conference in St. Andrews, Scotland, 24–27 October 2018 ‘After Pufendorf: Natural law and the passions in Germany and Scotland’
Supported by St. Andrews Institute of Intellectual History, Scottish Philosophical Association and Interdisciplinary Centre for European Enlightenment Studies (Halle)
By the middle of the eighteenth century, a number of authors who taught and wrote about natural law saw themselves as being engaged in a very different intellectual and academic activity than that of the natural lawyers of earlier generations. While staying within the mode of natural law, the deep-going revision that they understood themselves to be undertaking – each in their separate way – was to shift the idea of natural law as something that human nature needed somehow to have imposed upon it to the idea of natural law as in some sense inherent in human nature itself. Furthermore, they saw the relevant aspects of human nature to be the emotions or passions that drove people in their active lives. This development in natural law thinking has been referred to as an anthropological approach, as a turn from law to moral philosophy, as the formulation of a ‘Recht des Gefühls’, as a sentimental natural law, etc.
It was a line of argument that took several different forms and was articulated in quite different contexts, yet it is recognizable in thinkers as different as Johann Jacob Schmauss in Göttingen and Adam Smith in Glasgow. It was, however, a development that had started much earlier as part of the intense debates at the turn of the century about the nature and validity of Samuel Pufendorf’s natural law. Philosophers, legal theorists and theologians associated with the new university in Halle were the leading disputants, and a particularly important turning point in the debates about Pufendorf was Christian Thomasius’ abnegation during the early years of the new century of the deeply Pufendorfian ideas of natural law that he had been propagating with great impact previously.
Only a few years later, we see a reaction against Pufendorf in Scotland that has a number of strikingly similar features to that in Germany. Here the leading figure was Francis Hutcheson who had a broad influence on the intellectual culture that we now refer to as the Scottish Enlightenment and among whose students was Adam Smith. Across deep differences in philosophical, theological, legal and political contexts in Germany and Scotland the similarities in thoughts about natural law are striking, not only because of the idea of the passionate foundations for natural law, but also because these ideas in both cultural spheres led to some of the sharpest formulations of rights theories and to a historicisation of morality and law that pointed towards the dissolution of the natural law language. While acknowledging the many differences between the German and the Scottish thinkers, similarites such as these are so intriguing that they warrant joint consideration in a conference.
Grotius and the English Enlightenment. Questions and Perspektives.
Workshop: Dr. Marco Barducci (Perugia): Grotius and the English Enlightenment. Questions and Perspektives.
Round-table-Gespräch in Kooperation mit dem Interdisziplinären Zentrum für die Erforschung der Europäischen Aufklärung der Universität Halle-Wittenberg. 27. Juli 2018, 10:00 Uhr IZEA, Christian-Thomasius-Zimmer
Natural Law in Eastern Europe
Workshop: Natural Law in Eastern Europe
A workshop in the network ‘Natural Law, 1625-1850’ Forschungsstelle für Frühneuzeitliches Naturrecht Max-Weber-Kolleg, Erfurt 24.01.2018
11.00-11.30: Knud Haakonssen (Erfurt/St. Andrews) Welcome and introduction
11.30-12.30: Péter Balázs (Szeged) ‘Pufendorf in Hungarian and Transylvanian Collections’
14.00-15.00: Gábor Gángó (Erfurt/Budapest) ‘Pufendorf's reception in the academic gymnasia of Toruń and Elbląg under Ernest König's directorship’
15.00-16.00: Ivo Cerman (České Budějovice) ‘The Chairs of natural law in Vienna and Prague’
16.15.-17.15: Martin Mulsow (Erfurt/Gotha), Chair Round-table on future work on natural law in Eastern Europe
Heumanns »Collegium Juris naturae«. Zugänge zu einem noch unbekannten Manuskript.
Workshop: Heumanns »Collegium Juris naturae«. Zugänge zu einem noch unbekannten Manuskript. Forschungszentrum Gotha Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha 8. November 2017
Programm 13.30-14.15 Martin Mulsow: Einleitung: Vom Nutzen des Naturrechts und seinen litterärischen Hilfsmitteln (= Prolegomena und Appendix). 14.15-15.00 Knud Haakonssen: Das Recht allgemein. (= Cap. I.) 15.00-15.30 - Kaffeepause- 15.30-16.15 Frank Grunert: Gewissen, Willen, moralisches Handeln. (= Cap. II. u. III.) 16.15-17.00 Gideon Stiening: Honestum – Decorum – Iustum: Von den Prinzipien des Naturrechts. (= Cap. IV.) 17.00-17.30 - Kaffeepause- 17.30-18.15 Holger Glinka: Pflichten gegen Gott, sich selbst und andere. (= Cap. V., VI., VII.) 18.15-19.00 Oliver Bach: Nutzen und Rechte des Staates. (Cap. XI) 19.30 - Abendessen-
Love as the principle of natural law. The natural law of Johann Gottlieb Heineccius and its context
Network conference 2016: Love as the principle of natural law. The natural law of Johann Gottlieb Heineccius and its context
24 - 26 November 2016, Christian-Wolff-Haus, Halle (Saale)