Publications - Cornelia Betsch & Team: Psychology and Infectious Diseases Lab

2021 & in press

  • Adamu, A. A., Essoh, T. A., Adeyanju, G. C., Jalo, R. I., Saleh, Y., Aplogan, A., & Wiysonge, C. S. (2021). Drivers of hesitancy towards recommended childhood vaccines in African settings: a scoping review of literature from Kenya, Malawi and Ethiopia. Expert Review of Vaccines.
  • Adeyanju, G. C., Augustine, T. M., Volkmann, S., Oyebamiji, U. A., Ran, S., Osobajo, O. A., & Otitoju, A. (2021). Effectiveness of intervention on behaviour change against use of non-biodegradable plastic bags: a systematic review. Discover sustainability2(1), 1-15.
  • Attwell, K., Betsch, C., Dubé, E., Sivelä, J., Gagneur, A., Suggs, L. S., ... & Thomson, A. (2021). Increasing vaccine acceptance using evidence-based approaches and policies: Insights from research on behavioural and social determinants presented at the 7th Annual Vaccine Acceptance Meeting. International Journal of Infectious Diseases105, 188-193.
  • Betsch, C., Korn, L., & Böhm, R. (2021). Reply to Weisel: From polarization to vaccination and back. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(13), e2102717118.
    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102717118 
  • Betsch, C., Korn, L., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., & Thaiss, H. (2021). School opening during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: Public acceptance of wearing fabric masks in class. Public Health in Practice, 100115.
  • Betsch, C., Schmid-Küpke, N. K., Otten, L., & von Hirschhausen, E. (2020). Increasing the willingness to participate in organ donation through humorous health communication:(Quasi-) experimental evidence. PloS one15(11), e0241208.
  • Betsch, C. & Sprengholz, P. (in press): The human factor between airborne pollen concentrations and COVID-19 disease dynamics. PNAS
  • Betsch, C., Sprengholz, P., Siegers, R., Eitze, S., Korn, L., Goldhahn, L., ... & Jenny, M. A. (2021). Empirical evidence to understand the human factor for effective rapid testing against SARS-CoV-2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences118(32).
  • Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). Prosocial vaccination. Current Opinion in Psychology.
  • Eitze, S. , Felgendreff, L., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P. , Allen J., Jenny, M., Wieler, L., Thaiss, H., De Bock, F., & Betsch, C. (2021) Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in staatliche Institutionen im ersten Halbjahr der Coronapandemie: Erkenntnisse aus dem Projekt COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO). Bundesgesundheitsblatt.
  • Eitze, S., Heinemeier, D., Schmid-Küpke, N. K., Betsch, C., & Vaccination60+ Study Group. (2021). Decreasing vaccine hesitancy with extended health knowledge: Evidence from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology, 40(2), 77–88.
  • Felgendreff, L., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P. , Eitze, S. , Siegers, R. & Betsch, C. (2021). Risk information alone is not sufficient to reduce optimistic bias. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.
  • Geiger, M., Rees, F., Lilleholt, L., Santana, A. P., Zettler, I. Wilhelm, O., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2021). Measuring the 7Cs of vaccination readiness. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.
  • Grill, E., Eitze, S., DeBock, F., Dragano, N., Huebl, L., Schmich, P., ... & Betsch, C. (in press.). Sociodemographic characteristics determine download and use of a Corona contact tracing app in Germany-results of the COSMO surveys. PLOS ONE
  • Heinemeier, D., Terhardt, M., & Betsch, C. (2021). Impfverhalten psychologisch erklären und verändern am Beispiel der HPV-Impfung. Der Gynäkologe, 1-7.
  • Jenny, M. A., Lein, I., Jung-Sendzik, T., Eitze, S., Drosten, C., & Betsch, C. (2021). Kommunikationsempfehlungen zur Verbesserung des Verhaltens bei der Verwendung von PoC Antigen-Schnelltests und Selbsttests. [Communication recommendations to increase the use of PoC antigen rapid tests and self-tests.]
  • Korn, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). Reply to Rabb et al.: Why promoting COVID-19 vaccines with community immunity is not a good strategy (yet). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(14), e2102054118.
  • Krauth, C., Oedingen, C., Bartling, T., Dreier, M., Spura, A., de Bock, F., von Rüden, U., Betsch, C. Korn, L. & Robra, B-P.(2021). Public preferences for exit strategies from COVID-19 lockdown in Germany – a discrete choice experiment. International Journal of Public Health.
  • Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Schmid, P., Holford, D. L., Finn, A., Leask, J., ... & Vraga, E. K. (2021). The COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Handbook. A practical guide for improving vaccine communication and fighting misinformation.
    Available at:
  • Schmid-Küpke, N. K., Matysiak-Klose, D., Siedler, A., Felgendreff, L., Wieler, L., Thaiss, H. M., & Betsch, C. (2021). Cancelled routine vaccination appointments due to COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Vaccine: X, 100094.
  • Shapiro, G. K., Kaufman, J., Brewer, N. T., Wiley, K., Menning, L., Leask, J., ... & Wiysonge, C. S. (2021). A critical review of measures of childhood vaccine confidence. Current Opinion in Immunology71, 34-45.
  • Sprengholz, P. & Betsch, C (2021): Comment on: Willingness to Pay for a COVID-19 Vaccine. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
  • Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2021). Reactance revisited: Consequences of mandatory and scarce vaccination in the case of COVID-19.
    Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
  • Sprengholz, P., Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L., Korn, L., & Betsch, C. (2021). Money is not everything: experimental evidence that payments do not increase willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Journal of Medical Ethics.
  • Sprengholz, P., Siegers, R., Goldhahn, L., Eitze, S., & Betsch, C. (2021): Good night: Experimental evidence that nighttime curfews may fuel disease dynamics by increasing contact density. Social Science & Medicine.
  • Sprengholz, P. & Betsch, C. (2021): Zero-sum or worse? Considering detrimental effects of selective mandates on voluntary childhood vaccinations. The Journal of Pediatrics. 
  • Sprengholz, P., & Betsch, C. (in press): Ok Google: Using virtual assistants for data collection in psychological and behavioral research. Behavior Research Methods.
  • Sprengholz, P., & Betsch, C. (in press): Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is linked to lower vaccination intentions. Journal of Medical Virology.

Current preprints

  • Adeyanju, GC., Betsch, C., Abdu, AA, Sanusi, KG., Head, MG., Aplogan, A., Tall, H., Essoh, TA. (2021). Exploring the Drivers of Vaccine Hesitancy Toward Childhood and Adolescent Vaccination in Malawi: A Qualitative Study. 
  • Adeyanju, GC., Betsch, C., Head, MG., Essoh, Tene-Alima (2021). Drivers of Vaccine Hesitancy toward Childhood and Adolescent Vaccination in Malawi: A Policy Brief. Figshare. Presentation.
  • Adeyanju, GC., Solfa, RP., Tran, TL., Wohlfarth, S., Büttner, J., Osobajo, OA., Otitoju, A. (2021). Behavioural Symptoms of Mental Health Disorder such as Depression among Young People using Instagram: A Systematic Review. 
  • Betsch, C., Korn, L., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., & Sprengholz, P. (2020, July 24). Infographic on SARS-CoV-2 Airborne Transmission Improves Opponents’ View of the Benefits of Masks: Evidence from Serial Cross-Sectional and Experimental Data.
  • Betsch, C., Korn, L., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Schmid, P., Sprengholz, P., Wieler, L., Schmich, P., Stollorz, V., Ramharter, M., Bosnjak, M., Omer, S. B., Thaiss, H., De Bock, F., Von Rüden, U., Lämmlin, G., & Ahrens, P.-A. (2020-2021). German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO). PsychArchives. Preprints for data collection waves 1-17 available at:
  • Jirsa, V., Petkoski, S., Wang, H., Woodman, M., Fousek, J., Betsch, C., Felgendreff, L., Bohm, R., Lilleholt, L., Zettler, I., Faber, S., Shen, K., McIntosh, A. R. (2020, August 16). Integrating psychosocial variables and societal diversity in epidemic models for predicting COVID-19 transmission dynamics. medRxiv 2020.08.12.20173252; 
  • Lilleholt, L., Zettler, I., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2020, December 17). Pandemic Fatigue: Measurement, Correlates, and Consequences.
  • Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Böhm, R., & Betsch, C. (2021). Vaccination Policy Reactance: Predictors, Consequences, and Countermeasures.


  • Schmid, P., Schwarzer, M., & Betsch, C. (2020). Weight-of-Evidence Strategies to Mitigate the Influence of Messages of Science Denialism in Public Discussions. Journal of Cognition3(1), 36. DOI:
  • Gilan, D., Röthke, N., Blessin, M., Kunzler, A., Stoffers-Winterling, J., Müssig, M., Yuen, K. S. L., Tüscher, O., Thrul, J., Kreuter, F., Sprengholz, P., Betsch, C., Stieglitz, R. D., Lieb, K. (2020). Psychische Belastungen, Resilienz, Risiko- und protektive Faktoren während der SARS-CoV-2-Pandemie. Systematische Literaturanalyse und Studienergebnisse aus dem deutschen COSMO-Panel. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2020; 117: 625-32;
    DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2020.0625
  • Betsch, C., Korn, L., Sprengholz, P., Felgendreff, L., Eitze, S., Schmid, P., & Böhm, R. (2020). Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. P Natl Acad Sci USA, DOI:
  • Korn, L., Böhm, R., Meier, N.W., Betsch, C. (2020). Vaccination as a social contract. P Natl Acad Sci USA, 17 (26) 14890 - 14899,
  • Sprengholz, P., & Betsch, C. (2020). Herd immunity communication counters detrimental effects of selective vaccination mandates: Experimental evidence. EClinicalMedicine, 22, 100352. DOI:
  • Habersaat, K., Betsch, C., Danchin, M., Sunstein, C., Böhm, R., Falk, A., Brewer, N.T., Omer, S.B., Scherzer, M., Sah, S., Fischer, E.F., Scheel, A.E., Fancourt, D., Kitayama, S., Dubé, E., Leask, J., Dutta, M., MacDonald, N.E., Temkina, A., Lieberoth, A., Jackson, M. Lewandowsky, S., Seale, H., Fiethe, N., Schmid, P., Gelfand, M., Korn, L., Eitze, S., Felgendreff, L. Sprengholz, P., Salvi, C., Butler, R (2020). Ten considerations for effectively managing the COVID-19 transition. Nat Hum Behav. DOI:  
  • Betsch, C., Wieler, L.H., Habersaat, K. and the COSMO group (2020). Rapid, flexible, cost-effective monitoring tool for behavioural insights related to COVID-19 across countries. The Lancet, DOI:
    • The COSMO group for this paper are: Cornelia Betsch (PI), Lars Korn, Lisa Felgendreff, Sarah Eitze, Philipp Schmid, Philipp Sprengholz (University of Erfurt), Lothar H Wieler, Patrick Schmich (Robert Koch-Institute), Volker Stollorz (Science Media Center Germany), Michael Ramharter (Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine), Michael Bosnjak (Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information), Saad B. Omer (Yale Institute for Global Health), Katrine Habersaat, Martha Scherzer and Cristiana Salvi (WHO Regional Office for Europe).
  • Betsch, C. (2020). Behavioural science data can help mitigate the COVID-19 crisis. Nature Human Behaviour.
  • Betsch, C., Bach Habersaat, K., Deshevoi, S., Heinemeier, D., Briko, N., Kostenko, N., Kocik, J., Böhm, R., Zettler, I., Wiysonge, C. S., Dubé, È., Gagneur, A., Botelho-Nevers, E., Gagneux-Brunon, A., & Sivelä, J. (2020). Sample study protocol for adapting and translating the 5C scale to assess the psychological antecedents of vaccination. BMJ Open, 10(3), e034869.
  • Betsch, C., Schmid-Küpke, N. K., Otten, L., & von Hirschhausen, E. (2020). Increasing the willingness to participate in organ donation through humorous health communication:(Quasi-) experimental evidence. PloS one15(11), e0241208.
  • Neufeind, J., Betsch, C., Habersaat, K. B., Eckardt, M., Schmid, P., & Wichmann, O. (2020). Barriers and drivers to adult vaccination among family physicians – Insights for tailoring the immunization program in Germany. Vaccine.
  • Giese, H., Neth, H., Moussaïd, M., Betsch, C., & Gaissmaier, W. (2020). The echo in flu-vaccination echo chambers: Selective attention trumps social influence. Vaccine38(8), 2070-2076. 






  • Betsch, C., Korn, L., Holtmann, C. (2015). Don't try to convert the anti-vaccinators, instead target the fence-sitters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(49): E6725–E6726.
  • Bödeker, B., Betsch, C. & Wichmann, O. (2015). Skewed risk perceptions in pregnant women: the case of influenza vaccination. BMC Public Health, 16:1308. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2621-5 .
  • Betsch, C. & Böhm, R., & Chapman, G.B. (2015). Using Behavioral Insights to Increase Vaccination Policy Effectiveness. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 61-73.
  • Korn, L., Holtmann, C., Betsch, C. & Böhm, R. (2015). Die Impfbereitschaft verstehen und verbessern: Wenn persönliche Impfentscheidungen im Konflikt mit dem Gemeinwohl stehen und wie man dieses Dilemma auflösen kann. In-mind, 2/2015. 
  • Betsch, C. (2015). Meinung: Impfen ist eine soziale Entscheidung. Onlineausgabe Spektrum der Wissenschaft.
  • Betsch, C., Haase, N., Renkewitz, F. & Schmid, P. (2015). The narrative bias revisited: What drives the biasing influence of narrative information on risk perceptions? Judgment and Decision Making, 10, 241-264.
  • Haase, N., Betsch, C., & Renkewitz, F. (2015). Source Credibility and the Biasing Effect of Narrative Information on the Perception of Vaccination Risks. Journal of Health Communication. Jun 11:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Betsch C. Author’s reply: Vaccinating healthcare workers: ethics and strategic behaviour. Eurosurveillance. 2015;20(2):pii=21007.


  • Betsch, C. (2014). Social media targeting of health messages - a promising approach for research and practice. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 10(9), 2636-2637.
  • Betsch, C. & Wicker, S. (2014). Personal attitudes and misconceptions, not official recommendations guide occupational physicians’ vaccination decisions. Vaccine, 32(35), 4478-84.
  • Betsch C. (2014). Overcoming healthcare workers’ vaccine refusal – competition between egoism and altruism. Eurosurveillance, 19(48):pii=20979.
  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2014). Measles and rubella elimination: communicating the importance of vaccination. Stockholm: ECDC; 2014. Authored by Cornelia Betsch.


  • Betsch, C. (2013). Die Rolle des Internets bei der Elimination von Infektionskrankheiten: zum Management von Wahrnehmungen und Fehlwahrnehmungen. [The Role of the Internet in Eliminating Infectious Diseases: Managing Perceptions and Misperceptions of vaccination]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, 56:1279–1286.
  • Betsch, C., Böhm, R., & Korn, L. (2013). Inviting free-riders or appealing to pro-social behavior? Game theoretical reflections on communicating herd immunity in vaccine advocacy. Health Psychology, 32(9):978-85.
  • Haase, N., Renkewitz, F. & Betsch, C. (2013). The Measurement of Subjective Probability: Evaluating the Sensitivity and Accuracy of Various Scales. Risk Analysis. doi: 10.1111/risa.12025 . [Epub ahead of print].
  • Betsch, C., Renkewitz, F. & Haase, N. (2013). Effect of narrative reports about vaccine adverse events and bias-awareness disclaimers on vaccine decisions: A simulation of an online patient social network. Medical Decision Making. doi: 10.1177/0272989X12452342 . [Epub 2012 Aug 8].
  • Betsch, C. & Sachse, K. (2013). Debunking vaccination myths - Strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks. Health Psychology, 32, 145-155.


  • Betsch, C. & Schmid, P. (2012). Angst essen Impfbereitschaft auf? Der Einfluss kognitiver und affektiver Faktoren auf die Risikowahrnehmung im Ausbruchsgeschehen. [The influence of cognitive and affective aspects of risk perception during outbreaks.] Bundesgesundheitsblatt, 56, 124-130.
  • Haase, N. & Betsch, C. (2012). Parents trust other parents: Lay vaccination narratives on the web may create doubt about vaccination safety. Medical Decision Making, 32, 645.
  • Betsch, C. & Sachse, K. (2012). Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde? (How) the Internet influences vaccination decisions: Recent evidence and tentative guidelines for online vaccine communication. Vaccine, 30, 3723-3726.
  • Betsch, C., Brewer, N.T., Brocard, P., Davies, P., Gaissmaier, W., Haase, N., Leask, J., Renkewitz, F., Renner, B., Reyna, V.F., Rossmann, C., Sachse, K., Schachinger, A. & Siegrist, M. (2012). Opportunities and Challenges of Web 2.0 for Vaccination Decisions. Vaccine, 30, 3727-3733.
  • Betsch, C. & Wicker, S. (2012). E-Health Use, Vaccination Knowledge and Perception of Own Risk: Drivers of Vaccination Uptake in Medical Students. Vaccine, 30: 1143–1148.


  • Betsch., C. (2011). Innovations in communication: the Internet and the psychology of vaccination decisions. Eurosurveillance, 16(17):pii=19849. Available online
  • Betsch, C., Ulshöfer, C., Renkewitz, F. & Betsch, T., &  (2011). The influence of narrative vs. statistic information on perceiving vaccination risks. Medical Decision Making, 2011;31(5): 742 – 753.


  • Betsch, C. (2010). Das Internet und seine Auswirkung auf die Wahrnehmung von Impfrisiken. Kinderärztliche Praxis, 5, 282-286.
  • Betsch, C., Renkewitz, F., Betsch, T., & Ulshöfer, C. (2010). The influence of vaccine-critical Internet pages on perception of vaccination risks. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 446-455.
  • Betsch, C. (2010). Online-supplement complementing "The influence of vaccine-critical Internet pages on perceiving vaccination risks". The publication reveals the pretest which confirms the difference between the websites regarding criteria suggested in the literature.
  • Betsch, C. & Könen, T. (2010). Der Einfluss von Furchtappellen im Kontext impfkritischer Internetseiten: die Angst schlägt zurück. Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, 10, 159-166.

2008 and earlier

  • Betsch, C. & Kunz, J. J. (2008). Strategy Preferences and Decisional Fit. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21, 532-555.
  • Greifeneder, R. & Betsch, C. (2006). Lieber die Taube auf dem Dach! Eine Skala zur Erfassung interindividueller Unterschiede in der Maximierungstendenz [Maximizing – a scale to assess individual differences in maximizing]. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 37, 233-243.
  • Schunk, D. & Betsch, C. (2006). Explaining heterogeneity in utility functions by individual preferences for intuition and deliberation. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27, 386-401.
  • Betsch, C. (2004). Präferenz für Intuition und Deliberation. Inventar zur Erfassung von affekt- und kognitionsbasiertem Entscheiden. [Preference for Intuition and Deliberation (PID): An Inventory for Assessing Affect- and Cognition-Based Decision-Making]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 25, 179-197.
  • Betsch, C., Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (2004). Intuition: Wann Sie Ihren Bauch entscheiden lassen können. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 6, 81-83.
  • * Betsch, T., Haberstroh, S., & Höhle, C. (2002). Explaining and predicting routinized decision making: A review of theories. Theory & Psychology, 12, 453-488.


* under maiden name Höhle

Invited contributions

  • Betsch, C. (2010). Rolle des Internets als Forum für Impfkritik. Kapitel 4.5. des Nationalen Impfplans.
  • Betsch, C. & Renkewitz, F. (2009). Langfristige Auswirkungen einer Informationssuche auf impfkritischen Internetseiten. Prävention, 32, 125-128.


  • Sachse, K. & Betsch, C. (2014). Impfinformationen im Internet: Segen oder Fluch für die Impfentscheidung? In: Rossmann, C. & Hastall, M.R. (Hrsg.) Medien und Gesundheitskommunikation: Befunde, Entwicklungen, Herausforderungen.Baden-Baden: Nomos.
  • Iannello, P., Antoniettin, A., & Betsch, C. (2011). Intuition in Teaching. In: M. Sinclair: Handbook of Intuition Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
  • Betsch, C. & Iannello, P. (2010). Measuring individual differences in intuitive and deliberate decision making styles - A comparison of different measures. In: A. Glöckner & C. Witteman (Eds.). Tracing Intuition: Recent Methods in Measuring Intuitive and Deliberate Processes in Decision Making. pp- 251 – 267. London: Psychology Press.
  • Betsch, C. (2008). Chronic preferences for intuition and deliberation in decision making: Lessons learned about intuition from an individual differences approach. In: H. Plessner, C. Betsch, & T. Betsch, (2007) (Eds.). Intuition in judgment and decision making. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Edited book

  • Plessner, H., Betsch, C., & Betsch, T. (2008) (Eds). Intuition in judgment and decision making. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.