These questions will be addressed in four fields of discourse, with a focus on published sources since the First World War. The first field includes the question of whether Orthodox Christians in Western Europe have a diaspora identity or can feel like natives. The issue of conversion is particularly relevant here. Secondly, the author deals with the question of church organisation in Western Europe, where different ideas bite. The third field of discourse is institutional adaptation to the Western European social environment. Here questions of financing, recognition of secular values, and relations between the various nationally connoted churches are dealt with. Finally, the field of discourse of ecumenism – the idea of Christian unity – is also examined, which raises tricky questions for Orthodox Christians in Western Europe.